525 research outputs found

    Quantification of the Biological Factors that Determine Lamb Tenderness

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    Meat tenderness is an important meat quality trait. The variation in meat tenderness has a negative effect on consumer's perceptions and thus will impact on repeat purchasing decisions. Meat tenderness is known to be affected by many factors such as muscle fibre shortening, post-mortem proteolysis and collagen content. Experiment 1 (Chapter 3) focused on using the aforementioned factors to explain the amount of variation in tenderness in the longissimus muscle of 3 different ageing time periods. It was found that measures of post-mortem proteolysis combined with collagen content and sarcomere length (measure of muscle fibre shortening) explained just under 40% of the variation in shear force tenderness of the longissimus muscle. Particle size analysis accounted for 32% of the explainable variation across the different aging periods. It was concluded that to improve the tenderness of lamb longissimus, methods need to focus on improving the extent of post-mortem proteolysis. Experiment 2's (Chapter 4) main aim was to identify if there was variation between shear force tenderness between different laboratories. 26 longissimus samples were collected and aged for 2 alternate aging periods. Each laboratory used different cooking methods and machine settings. Strong correlations were observed for the data from each laboratory (r = 0.79). It was concluded that provided there were sufficient replications performed across other sources of variation, the two laboratories will rank shear force samples the same. Experiment 3 (Chapter 5) utilised three different ovine muscles (longissimus, biceps femoris and semimembranosus) with the aforementioned traits and the inclusion of IMF (intramuscular fat) to identify the variation in both sensory (longissimus and semimembranosus) and shear force (all three muscles) tenderness. It was found that for the longissimus shear force samples that IMF, sarcomere length and desmin degradation were the significant factors. However, sensory tenderness for the longissimus had IMF, ultimate pH and gender as the significant factors. For the semimembranosus, desmin degradation was the best predictor for both sensory and shear force tenderness. The biceps femoris utilised soluble collagen and animal age for shear force samples. It was concluded that different factors impact on tenderness across different muscles and no one prediction model applied effectively across all muscles. Based on the results of these experiments, no one model will be effective in predicting the explainable variation in tenderness in different muscles. Further research is warranted to identify how different muscles are influenced by these aforementioned traits. The suggested project would encompass 12 different muscles from different positions on the carcase to identify how carcases respond to muscle shortening, aging and collagen content. This will allow processors to adapt new methods to allow for the production of more tender lamb

    Mesogenic groups control the emitter orientation in multi-resonance TADF emitter films

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    Funding: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council - EP/P010482/1; Leverhulme Trust - RPG-2016-047; Royal Society - SRF\R1\201089; China Scholarship Council - 201603780001; Horizon 2020 Framework Programme - 838885; Fonds De La Recherche Scientifique - FNRS - 2.5020.11; Fonds De La Recherche Scientifique - FNRS - F.4534.21; Horizon 2020 Framework Programme - 101023743.The use of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters and emitters that show preferential horizontal orientation of their transition dipole moment (TDM) are two emerging strategies to enhance the efficiency of OLEDs. We present the first example of a liquid crystalline multi-resonance TADF (MR-TADF) emitter, DiKTa-LC. The compound possesses a nematic liquid crystalline phase between 80 掳C and 110 掳C. Importantly, the TDM of the spin-coated film shows preferential horizontal orientation, with an anisotropy factor, a, of 0.28, which is preserved in doped poly(vinylcarbazole) films. Green-emitting (位EL = 492 nm) solution-processed OLEDs based on DiKTa-LC showed an EQEmax of 13.6%. We thus demonstrate for the first time how self-assembly of a liquid crystalline TADF emitter can lead to the so-far elusive control of the orientation of the transition dipole in solution-processed films, which will be of relevance for high-performance solution-processed OLEDs.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Transdiaphragmatic Intercostal Hernia Repair in a Patient with Previous Thoracic Surgery

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    A transdiaphragmatic intercostal hernia (TDIH) describes the herniation of abdominal contents through diaphragm and chest wall defects.鈥疘t has been documented following traumatic injuries as well as after episodes of increased thoracoabdominal pressure. However, those resulting from iatrogenic cause remain uncommon and are less often recorded. We report an iatrogenic TDIH in a patient presenting 39 days after a complicated thoracic procedure, highlighting the surgical technique used for successful hernia reduction, diaphragmatic closure, and rib re-approximation. The case reinforces the possibility of a TDIH occurring as a post-surgical complication. Surgeons should anticipate the potential development of TDIH, particularly after thoracic procedures in patients with significant pre-existing conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cirrhosis.鈥疭uch clinical awareness should be coupled with apt corrective surgical strategies thereby providing greater opportunity for successful patient recovery

    Judicious heteroatom doping produces high performance deep blue/near UV multiresonant thermally activated delayed fluorescence OLEDs

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    Funding: Horizon 2020 Framework Programme - 838885; Leverhulme Trust - RPG-2016-047; Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council - EP/L017008, EP/P010482/1; Fonds de la Recherche Scientifiques de Belgique - 2.5020.11; Walloon Region - n1117545; Fonds De La Recherche Scientifique - FNRS - F.4534.21.Two multiresonant thermally activated delayed fluorescence (MR-TADF) emitters are presented and it is shown how further borylation of a deep-blue MR-TADF emitter, DIDOBNA-N, both blueshifts and narrows the emission producing a new near-UV MR-TADF emitter, MesB-DIDOBNA-N, are shown. DIDOBNA-N emits bright blue light (桅PL = 444 nm, FWHM = 64 nm, 桅PL = 81%, 蟿d = 23 ms, 1.5 wt% in TSPO1). The deep-blue organic light-emitting diode (OLED) based on this twisted MR-TADF compound shows a very high maximum external quantum efficiency (EQEmax) of 15.3% for a device with CIEy of 0.073. The fused planar MR-TADF emitter, MesB-DIDOBNA-N shows efficient and narrowband near-UV emission (位PL = 402 nm, FWHM = 19 nm, 桅PL = 74.7%, 蟿d = 133 ms, 1.5 wt% in TSPO1). The best OLED with MesB-DIDOBNA-N, doped in a co-host, shows the highest efficiency reported for a near-UV OLED at 16.2%. With a CIEy coordinate of 0.049, this device also shows the bluest EL reported for a MR-TADF OLED to date.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    The Lloyd's Register archive: An appraisal

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    This research note presents the findings of an appraisal of the archives of Lloyd's Register recently undertaken by researchers from Blaydes Maritime Centre at the University of Hull. Funded by the Lloyd's Register Foundation, the aim of this project was to assess the character, extent and evidential quality of a rich yet underutilized assemblage of records relating to shipping and vessel safety from the late eighteenth century. After discussing material generated by the organization's management committees, ship classification process and labour deployment, the research note concludes with a discussion of current and future reader access to this large, historically significant and dynamically evolving collection of primary source materials

    Emerging topics in nanophononics and elastic, acoustic, and mechanical metamaterials:An overview

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    This broad review summarizes recent advances and 鈥渉ot鈥 research topics in nanophononics and elastic, acoustic, and mechanical metamaterials based on results presented by the authors at the EUROMECH 610 Colloquium held on April 25鈥27, 2022 in Benic谩ssim, Spain. The key goal of the colloquium was to highlight important developments in these areas, particularly new results that emerged during the last two years. This work thus presents a 鈥渟napshot鈥 of the state-of-the-art of different nanophononics- and metamaterial-related topics rather than a historical view on these subjects, in contrast to a conventional review article. The introduction of basic definitions for each topic is followed by an outline of design strategies for the media under consideration, recently developed analysis and implementation techniques, and discussions of current challenges and promising applications. This review, while not comprehensive, will be helpful especially for early-career researchers, among others, as it offers a broad view of the current state-of-the-art and highlights some unique and flourishing research in the mentioned fields, providing insight into multiple exciting research directions

    Development of CO2 capture method via polyurethane-amine sorbent in VSA

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    With increases in extreme weather and global temperatures, research is delving into CO2 capture to help reverse climate change. This project explored utilizing vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) for CO2 capture and release. VSA uses a sorbent, in this case amine sorbents, to capture CO颅颅2 from air and subsequently removes it via vacuum. Polyurethane (PU) foam was investigated as a potential matrix for amine sorbents to increase exposure of CO2 capturing amines to air by utilizing its porous structure. PU mixing studies were conducted to determine the feasibility of mixing PU foam with amines and coating foams with amine solutions by studying the effects they might have on the foam matrix structure. The amines tested include polyethylenimine (PEI), tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), and diethylenetriamine (DETA). The impact of modifying the amines via methods such as saturation with CO2 and poisoning with acids were explored with regard to their effect on PU foam structure and expansion. Many interactions between amines and PU caused the resulting foam to collapse, having little to no porous structure. However, a 6.5 wt% of 1:1 H2O and TEPA mixture added to PU was determined to provide better internal structure and solvent uptake than commercial closed cell foam. A CO2 capture vacuum unit was designed and constructed for VSA. FTIR analysis was conducted in-situ with the unit to observe CO2 adsorption and desorption. Observations verified the method of CO2 capture and measurement as an effective method. It also showed that some amine was pulled from the PU matrix in the vacuum, so future work will continue to improve amine retention. This project developed sorbent samples with analysis of amine-PU interaction effects, a CO2 unit for VSA, and a method for in-situ analysis of CO2 adsorption and desorption