436 research outputs found

    Аскаридоз – чи є вплив на непліддя? чи здатен викликати післяпологовий ендометрит? (випадок з практики)

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    Представлен случай из практики выявления Ascaris lumbricoides у пациентки после первичного бесплодия с осложнениями в послеродовом периоде. Приведена клиническая картина и фотографии аскариды длинной 10 см при кольпоскопии на 30 сутки послеродового периода.We present case of patient with I infertility 3 years, complication of pregnancy (anemia, cervical insufficiency), presence of Ascaris lumbricoides in the vagina in the postpartum period (with photos)

    Who is most influential? Adolescents’ intergroup attitudes and peer influence within a social network

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    Research has shown that adolescents' intergroup attitudes are subject to friends' influence, but it remains unknown if certain friends are more influential than others. Popular adolescents may be especially influential of their friends' intergroup attitudes because they can set peer norms. We examined several indicators of popularity in social networks as possible determinants of social influence: sociometric popularity, prestige popularity, being a clique leader, and frequency of contact with friends. Longitudinal analysis of adolescents' friendship networks (12-13 years, N = 837) allowed estimating influence of friends on adolescents' intergroup attitudes, while controlling for the tendency of adolescents to befriend peers with similar intergroup attitudes. Results showed that adolescents' intergroup attitudes changed in the direction of friends' intergroup attitudes. Only peers who are popular in terms of having many friends (sociometric popular) were especially influential of their friends' intergroup attitudes. These findings may inform future interventions aiming to reduce prejudice

    Reprint of: Predicting data quality of proxy reports in egocentric network studies

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    Egocentric network studies and many general population surveys rely on proxy reports about network contacts of study participants that are asked in name interpreter questions. A central concern is the extent to which proxy reports match the answers these contacts would give themselves if they would be directly interviewed. Based on the theory of survey satisficing, the present research proposes a theoretical framework that allows predicting when proxy reports are likely to match self-reports. Congruence is higher if respondents possess the motivation and ability to answer a proxy question effortfully, and if the task is not too difficult. Moreover, the theory of survey satisficing states that motivation, abilities, and task difficulty are not independent of each other, which provides an explanation for inconsistent findings in the literature. Results from two egocentric network studies study among German adults (N = 756) and among Dutch middle school students (N = 679), in which network contacts were also interviewed, are in line with these hypotheses. Design recommendations for egocentric network studies are provided

    Attitudes towards homosexuality among ethnic majority and minority adolescents in Western Europe: The role of ethnic classroom composition

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    Ethnic minorities from more traditional countries tend to hold more conservative views towards homosexuality compared to the ethnic majority population in Western Europe. Assimilation theory predicts that this difference diminishes over time because of exposure and contact between these groups. The role of ethnic classroom composition in this process of cultural assimilation is poorly understood. Therefore, this article examines the role of the country of origin of adolescents and their classroom peers in the assimilation of attitudes towards homosexuality. Using two-wave panel data on 18,058 students in 867 classrooms in England, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden, we find that the attitudes towards homosexuality in classroom peers’ country of origin are positively associated with attitudes towards homosexuality of respondents in the first wave but have no effect on subsequent changes in these attitudes over a two-year period. We find some variations in this association according to individual-level characteristics, but these results are not consistent across the countries that we study. Together, these results suggest that the classroom is an important socializing context in the formation of cultural values, and that its influence is relatively uniform across groups

    The Impact of Social Desirability Pressures on Whites’ Endorsement of Racial Stereotypes: A Comparison Between Oral and ACASI Reports in a National Survey

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    In the last 60 years, the proportion of white Americans expressing anti-black prejudice in face-to-face survey interviews has declined dramatically. To test whether social desirability pressures affect the expression of anti-black prejudice, we analyzed a within-subjects experiment in the 2008 American National Election Study in which white respondents first reported their endorsement of stereotypes of blacks confidentially via audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) and weeks or months later orally during second interviews. Shifting to ACASI led to a small but significant increase in negative views of blacks. Unexpectedly, shifting to ACASI also led to a similarly large increase in negative views of whites. Furthermore, the ACASI reports had no more predictive validity than did the oral reports. This evidence suggests that social desirability pressures do not seriously compromise oral reports of racial stereotypes in face-to-face interviews

    Qudi: a modular python suite for experiment control and data processing

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    Qudi is a general, modular, multi-operating system suite written in Python 3 for controlling laboratory experiments. It provides a structured environment by separating functionality into hardware abstraction, experiment logic and user interface layers. The core feature set comprises a graphical user interface, live data visualization, distributed execution over networks, rapid prototyping via Jupyter notebooks, configuration management, and data recording. Currently, the included modules are focused on confocal microscopy, quantum optics and quantum information experiments, but an expansion into other fields is possible and encouraged. Qudi is available from https://github.com/Ulm-IQO/qudi and is freely useable under the GNU General Public Licence.Comment: Software paper, 9 pages, 2 figure

    Americans’ Attitudes toward the Affordable Care Act: What Role Do Beliefs Play?

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    How do people form their attitudes toward complex policy issues? Although there has long been an assumption that people consider the various components of those issues and come to an overall assessment, a growing body of recent work has instead suggested that people may reach summary judgments as a function of heuristic cues and goal-oriented rationalizations. This study examines how well a component-based model fits Americans’ evaluations of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, an important and highly contentious piece of legislation that contained several constituent parts. Despite strong partisan disagreement about the law, we find that Democrats and Republicans both appear to evaluate the law as a function of their beliefs and what the law would do as well as their confidence in those beliefs. This finding implies that correcting misperceptions and increasing awareness of the components of legislation have the potential to change attitudes

    Growing old at home – A randomized controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of preventive home visits to reduce nursing home admissions: study protocol [NCT00644826]

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Regarding demographic changes in Germany it can be assumed that the number of elderly and the resulting need for long term care is increasing in the near future. It is not only an individual's interest but also of public concern to avoid a nursing home admission. Current evidence indicates that preventive home visits can be an effective way to reduce the admission rate in this way making it possible for elderly people to stay longer at home than without home visits. As the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of preventive home visits strongly depends on existing services in the social and health system existing international results cannot be merely transferred to Germany. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of such an intervention in Germany by a randomized controlled trial.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>The trial is designed as a prospective multi-center randomized controlled trial in the cities of Halle and Leipzig. The trial includes an intervention and a control group. The control group receives usual care. The intervention group receives three additional home visits by non-physician health professionals (1) geriatric assessment, (2) consultation, (3) booster session.</p> <p>The nursing home admission rate after 18 months will be defined as the primary outcome. An absolute risk reduction from a 20% in the control-group to a 7% admission rate in the intervention group including an assumed drop out rate of 30% resulted in a required sample size of N = 320 (n = 160 vs. n = 160).</p> <p>Parallel to the clinical outcome measurement the intervention will be evaluated economically. The economic evaluation will be performed from a society perspective.</p> <p>Discussion</p> <p>To the authors' knowledge for the first time a trial will investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of preventive home visits for people aged 80 and over in Germany using the design of a randomized controlled trial. Thus, the trial will contribute to the existing evidence on preventive home visits especially in Germany.</p
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