24,466 research outputs found

    Low-G fluid transfer technology study, executive summary

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    For abstract, see N76-24502

    Space LOX vent system

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    The research of the program to design and build a prototype vent system capable of exhausting only vapor to space from an all liquid or two-phase mixture of oxygen, while operating under low or zero-gravity conditions is reported. Work performed during the detail design phase of the program was concerned with the finalization of vent system performance, development of component specifications, solicitation of vendor bids, selection of components and overall system package design. The compact system preliminary design defined for the comparisons was reviewed in light of a desirability to demonstrate complete tank mixing at one-g. Also, performance of the system at low-g conditions with a full tank and maximum temperature stratification or maximum pressure rise between vent cycles was investigated. It was found that under these extreme conditions, not previously considered, that use of a larger pump mixer than previously defined would be desirable. In addition, to simplify ground testing with only a small weight penalty, the exchanger vent pressure was increased from 5 psia to 22 psia nominal. This resulted in less than a 0.2% increase in system weight

    New Uses for Sensitivity Analysis: How Different Movement Tasks Effect Limb Model Parameter Sensitivity

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    Original results for a newly developed eight-order nonlinear limb antagonistic muscle model of elbow flexion and extension are presented. A wider variety of sensitivity analysis techniques are used and a systematic protocol is established that shows how the different methods can be used efficiently to complement one another for maximum insight into model sensitivity. It is explicitly shown how the sensitivity of output behaviors to model parameters is a function of the controller input sequence, i.e., of the movement task. When the task is changed (for instance, from an input sequence that results in the usual fast movement task to a slower movement that may also involve external loading, etc.) the set of parameters with high sensitivity will in general also change. Such task-specific use of sensitivity analysis techniques identifies the set of parameters most important for a given task, and even suggests task-specific model reduction possibilities

    Hyperbolic groups that are not commensurably coHopfian

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    Sela proved every torsion-free one-ended hyperbolic group is coHopfian. We prove that there exist torsion-free one-ended hyperbolic groups that are not commensurably coHopfian. In particular, we show that the fundamental group of every simple surface amalgam is not commensurably coHopfian.Comment: v3: 14 pages, 4 figures; minor changes. To appear in International Mathematics Research Notice

    Collisional Grooming Models of the Kuiper Belt Dust Cloud

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    We modeled the 3-D structure of the Kuiper Belt dust cloud at four different dust production rates, incorporating both planet-dust interactions and grain-grain collisions using the collisional grooming algorithm. Simulated images of a model with a face-on optical depth of ~10^-4 primarily show an azimuthally-symmetric ring at 40-47 AU in submillimeter and infrared wavelengths; this ring is associated with the cold classical Kuiper Belt. For models with lower optical depths (10^-6 and 10^-7), synthetic infrared images show that the ring widens and a gap opens in the ring at the location of of Neptune; this feature is caused by trapping of dust grains in Neptune's mean motion resonances. At low optical depths, a secondary ring also appears associated with the hole cleared in the center of the disk by Saturn. Our simulations, which incorporate 25 different grain sizes, illustrate that grain-grain collisions are important in sculpting today's Kuiper Belt dust, and probably other aspects of the Solar System dust complex; collisions erase all signs of azimuthal asymmetry from the submillimeter image of the disk at every dust level we considered. The model images switch from being dominated by resonantly-trapped small grains ("transport dominated") to being dominated by the birth ring ("collision dominated") when the optical depth reaches a critical value of tau ~ v/c, where v is the local Keplerian speed.Comment: 31 pages, including 9 figure

    Mnemonic discrimination relates to perforant path integrity: An ultra-high resolution diffusion tensor imaging study.

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    Pattern separation describes the orthogonalization of similar inputs into unique, non-overlapping representations. This computational process is thought to serve memory by reducing interference and to be mediated by the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Using ultra-high in-plane resolution diffusion tensor imaging (hrDTI) in older adults, we previously demonstrated that integrity of the perforant path, which provides input to the dentate gyrus from entorhinal cortex, was associated with mnemonic discrimination, a behavioral outcome designed to load on pattern separation. The current hrDTI study assessed the specificity of this perforant path integrity-mnemonic discrimination relationship relative to other cognitive constructs (identified using a factor analysis) and white matter tracts (hippocampal cingulum, fornix, corpus callosum) in 112 healthy adults (20-87 years). Results revealed age-related declines in integrity of the perforant path and other medial temporal lobe (MTL) tracts (hippocampal cingulum, fornix). Controlling for global effects of brain aging, perforant path integrity related only to the factor that captured mnemonic discrimination performance. Comparable integrity-mnemonic discrimination relationships were also observed for the hippocampal cingulum and fornix. Thus, whereas perforant path integrity specifically relates to mnemonic discrimination, mnemonic discrimination may be mediated by a broader MTL network

    Gated rotation mechanism of site-specific recombination by ϕC31 integrase

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    Integrases, such as that of the Streptomyces temperate bacteriophage ϕC31, promote site-specific recombination between DNA sequences in the bacteriophage and bacterial genomes to integrate or excise the phage DNA. ϕC31 integrase belongs to the serine recombinase family, a large group of structurally related enzymes with diverse biological functions. It has been proposed that serine integrases use a “subunit rotation” mechanism to exchange DNA strands after double-strand DNA cleavage at the two recombining att sites, and that many rounds of subunit rotation can occur before the strands are religated. We have analyzed the mechanism of ϕC31 integrase-mediated recombination in a topologically constrained experimental system using hybrid “phes” recombination sites, each of which comprises a ϕC31 att site positioned adjacent to a regulatory sequence recognized by Tn3 resolvase. The topologies of reaction products from circular substrates containing two phes sites support a right-handed subunit rotation mechanism for catalysis of both integrative and excisive recombination. Strand exchange usually terminates after a single round of 180° rotation. However, multiple processive “360° rotation” rounds of strand exchange can be observed, if the recombining sites have nonidentical base pairs at their centers. We propose that a regulatory “gating” mechanism normally blocks multiple rounds of strand exchange and triggers product release after a single round
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