1,822 research outputs found

    Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Generation of cGMP Regulates Migration of MGE Neurons

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    Here we have provided evidence that nitric oxide-cyclic GMP (NO-cGMP) signaling regulates neurite length and migration of immature neurons derived from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE). Dlx1/2(-/-) and Lhx6(-/-) mouse mutants, which exhibit MGE interneuron migration defects, have reduced expression of the gene encoding the alpha subunit of a soluble guanylate cyclase (Gucy1A3). Furthermore, Dlx1/2(-/-) mouse mutants have reduced expression of NO synthase 1 (NOS1). Gucy1A3(-/-) mice have a transient reduction in cortical interneuron number. Pharmacological inhibition of soluble guanylate cyclase and NOS activity rapidly induces neurite retraction of MGE cells in vitro and in slice culture and robustly inhibits cell migration from the MGE and caudal ganglionic eminence. We provide evidence that these cellular phenotypes are mediated by activation of the Rho signaling pathway and inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase activity

    The OPERA magnetic spectrometer

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    The OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment foresees the construction of two magnetized iron spectrometers located after the lead-nuclear emulsion targets. The magnet is made up of two vertical walls of rectangular cross section connected by return yokes. The particle trajectories are measured by high precision drift tubes located before and after the arms of the magnet. Moreover, the magnet steel is instrumented with Resistive Plate Chambers that ease pattern recognition and allow a calorimetric measurement of the hadronic showers. In this paper we review the construction of the spectrometers. In particular, we describe the results obtained from the magnet and RPC prototypes and the installation of the final apparatus at the Gran Sasso laboratories. We discuss the mechanical and magnetic properties of the steel and the techniques employed to calibrate the field in the bulk of the magnet. Moreover, results of the tests and issues concerning the mass production of the Resistive Plate Chambers are reported. Finally, the expected physics performance of the detector is described; estimates rely on numerical simulations and the outcome of the tests described above.Comment: 6 pages, 10 figures, presented at the 2003 IEEE-NSS conference, Portland, OR, USA, October 20-24, 200

    ‘Coming back Home’ . Il Modello Virtuale della Statua Romana di Asclepio del Museo di Siracusa (Italia)

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    The colossal torso of the god Asclepius, kept into the Castello Maniace during the Spanish domination of Sicily, is now one of the most significant examples of roman statuary in the Syracuse Museum. The recent restoration of the Castello Maniace has been celebrated in 2008 with an exhibition of archaeological finds obtained in the various excavations of the castle. The statue of Asclepius, which had for centuries been a part of the architecture there, should have been the most significant piece on display. However, its large size and frailty made such a temporary move inadvisable, and it was decided that a plaster cast should be made and exhibited instead. A team of archaeologists and information technicians from the Archeomatica Project of Catania University were able to contribute to this task by creating a 3D model of the statue through the use of laser scanning techniques

    Rho primes in analyzing e+e- annihilation, MARK III, LASS and ARGUS data

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    The results of an analysis are presented of some recent data on the reactions e+eπ+ππ+πe^+e^-\to\pi^+\pi^-\pi^+\pi^-, e+eπ+ππ0π0e^+e^-\to\pi^+\pi^-\pi^0\pi^0 with the subtracted ωπ0\omega\pi^0 events, e+eωπ0e^+e^-\to\omega\pi^0, e+eηπ+πe^+e^-\to\eta \pi^+\pi^-, e+eπ+πe^+e^-\to\pi^+\pi^-, Kpπ+πΛK^-p\to\pi^+\pi^-\Lambda, the decays J/ψπ+ππ0J/\psi\to\pi^+\pi^-\pi^0, tauνtauπ+πππ0tau^-\to\nu_tau\pi^+\pi^-\pi^-\pi^0 tauντωπtau^-\to\nu_\tau\omega\pi^-, upon taking into account both the strong energy dependence of the partial widths on energy and the previously neglected mixing of the ρ\rho type resonances. The above effects are shown to exert an essential influence on the specific values of masses and coupling constants of heavy resonances and hence are necessary to be accounted for in establishing their true nature.Comment: 20 pages, ReVTeX, 9 Postscript figures As compared to hep-ph/9607398, new material concerning the analysis of the ARGUS data on the tau decays into four pion hadronic states is adde

    Integrated three-dimensional models for noninvasive monitoring and valorization of the Morgantina silver treasure (Sicily)

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    The Morgantina silver treasure belonging to the Archaeological Museum of Aidone (Sicily) was involved in a three-dimensional (3-D) survey and diagnostics campaign for monitoring the collection over time in anticipation of their temporary transfer to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York for a period of 4 years. Using a multidisciplinary approach, a scientific and methodological protocol based on noninvasive techniques to achieve a complete and integrated knowledge of the precious items and their conservation state, as well as to increase their valorization, has been developed. All acquired data, i.e., 3-D models, ultraviolet fluorescence, x-ray images, and chemical information, will be made available, in an integrated way, within a web-oriented platform, which will present an in-progress tool to deepen existing archaeological knowledge and production technologies and to obtain referenced information of the conservation state before and after moving of the collection from its exposure site

    Electromagnetic form factors in the J/\psi mass region: The case in favor of additional resonances

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    Using the results of our recent analysis of e^+e^- annihilation, we plot the curves for the diagonal and transition form factors of light hadrons in the time-like region up to the production threshold of an open charm quantum number. The comparison with existing data on the decays of J/\psi into such hadrons shows that some new resonance structures may be present in the mass range between 2 GeVand the J/\psi mass. Searching them may help in a better understanding of the mass spectrum in both the simple and a more sophisticated quark models, and in revealing the details of the three-gluon mechanism of the OZI rule breaking in K\bar K channel.Comment: Formulas are added, typo is corrected, the text is rearranged. Replaced to match the version accepted in Phys Rev

    Hypoxia promotes the inflammatory response and stemness features in visceral fat stem cells from obese subjects

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    Low-grade chronic inflammation is a salient feature of obesity and many associated disorders. This condition frequently occurs in central obesity and is connected to alterations of the visceral adipose tissue (AT) microenvironment. Understanding how obesity is related to inflammation may allow the development of therapeutics aimed at improving metabolic parameters in obese patients. To achieve this aim, we compared the features of 2 subpopulations of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) isolated from both subcutaneous and visceral AT of obese patients with the features of 2 subpopulations of ASC from the same isolation sites of non-obese individuals. In particular, the behavior of ASC of obese vs non-obese subjects during hypoxia, which occurs in obese AT and is an inducer of the inflammatory response, was evaluated. Obesity deeply influenced ASC from visceral AT (obV-ASC); these cells appeared to exhibit clearly distinguishable morphology and ultrastructure as well as reduced proliferation, clonogenicity and expression of stemness, differentiation and inflammation-related genes. These cells also exhibited a deregulated response to hypoxia, which induced strong tissue-specific NF-kB activation and an NF-kB-mediated increase in inflammatory and fibrogenic responses. Moreover, obV-ASC, which showed a less stem-like phenotype, recovered stemness features after hypoxia. Our findings demonstrated the peculiar behavior of obV-ASC, their influence on the obese visceral AT microenvironment and the therapeutic potential of NF-kB inhibitors. These novel findings suggest that the deregulated hyper-responsiveness to hypoxic stimulus of ASC from visceral AT of obese subjects may contribute via paracrine mechanisms to low-grade chronic inflammation, which has been implicated in obesity-related morbidity