54 research outputs found

    Evolution of HII regions in hierarchically structured molecular clouds

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    We present observations of the H91α\alpha recombination line emission towards a sample of nine HII regions associated with 6.7-GHz methanol masers, and report arcsecond-scale emission around compact cores. We derive physical parameters for our sources, and find that although simple hydrostatic models of region evolution reproduce the observed region sizes, they significantly underestimate emission measures. We argue that these findings are consistent with young source ages in our sample, and can be explained by existence of density gradients in the ionised gas.Comment: 11 pages, 6 figures; accepted for publication in MNRA

    APEX Millimeter Observations of Methanol Emission Toward High-Mass Star-Forming Cores

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    We present 247-GHz molecular line observations of methanol (CH3_3OH) toward sixteen massive star-forming regions, using the APEX telescope with an angular resolution of 25′′25''. The sample covers a range of evolutionary states, including warm molecular cores, hot molecular cores, and ultracompact HII regions. The hot cores, all of which include UC HII regions, show rich molecular line spectra, although the strength of different species and transitions varies from source to source. In contrast, the warm cores do not show significant molecular line emission. Multiple methanol transitions are detected toward nine of the hot cores; eight of these had enough transitions to use the rotation diagram method to estimate rotational temperatures and column densities. The temperatures lie in the range 104−-168 K and column densities from 3×10163\times10^{16} to 7×10187\times10^{18} cm−2^{-2}. Using the average methanol line parameters, we estimate virial masses, which fall in the range from 145 to 720 M⊙_\odot and proved to be significantly higher than the measured gas masses. We discuss possible scenarios to explain the chemical differences between hot cores and warm molecular cores. One of the observed methanol lines, 42−51A+4_{2}-5_{1}A^{+} at 247.228 GHz, is predicted to show class II maser emission, similar in intensity to previously reported J0−J−1EJ_0-J_{-1}E masers at 157 GHz. We did not find any clear evidence for maser emission among the observed sources; however, a weak maser in this line may exist in G345.01+1.79.Comment: Accepted for publication in The Astronomical Journa

    Searching for compact radio sources associated to UCHII regions

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    Ultra-Compact (UC)HII regions represent a very early stage of massive star formation whose structure and evolution are not yet fully understood. Interferometric observations in recent years show that some UCHII regions have associated compact sources of uncertain nature. Based on this, we carried out VLA 1.3 cm observations in the A configuration of selected UCHII regions in order to report additional cases of compact sources embedded in UCHII regions. From the observations, we find 13 compact sources associated to 9 UCHII regions. Although we cannot establish an unambiguous nature for the newly detected sources, we assess some of their observational properties. According to the results, we can distinguish between two types of compact sources. One type corresponds to sources that probably are deeply embedded in the dense ionized gas of the UCHII region. These sources are being photo-evaporated by the exciting star of the region and will last for 104−105^4-10^5 yr. They may play a crucial role in the evolution of the UCHII region as the photo-evaporated material could replenish the expanding plasma and might provide a solution to the so-called lifetime problem for these regions. The second type of compact sources is not associated with the densest ionized gas of the region. A few of these sources appear resolved and may be photo-evaporating objects such as those of the first type but with significantly lower mass depletion rates. The rest of sources of this second type appear unresolved and their properties are varied. We speculate on the similarity between the sources of the second type and those of the Orion population of radio sources.Comment: 33 pages, 6 figures, 4 tables. Accepted for publication in Ap

    Arecibo Observations of Formaldehyde in L1551

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    We report observations of the formaldehyde (H2CO) 6 cm (4.8 GHz) line toward L1551. The observations were conducted with the Arecibo Telescope (beam FWHP ~ 1') to verify the tentative detection of H2CO thermal emission reported by Duncan and collaborators in 1987. The H2CO emission lines were expected to be present with a signal-to-noise ratio of 10 in our spectra. However, we did not detect H2CO emission; i.e., our data rule out their tentative detection. The absence of H2CO emission is also confirmed by the fact that the H2CO line profiles at the two positions of expected emission are well fitted by a single absorption component (accounting for the hyperfine structure of the line) in one of the positions and by a single absorption line plus a red-wing absorption component in the second position. The Orion BN/KL region remains the only H2CO 6 cm thermal emitter known. Our observations also demonstrate that the H2CO 6 cm absorption line traces not only the quiescent molecular cloud but also the kinematics associated with the star formation process in L1551-IRS 5
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