32 research outputs found

    Elevated Cytokines and Chemokines in Peripheral Blood of Patients With SARS-CoV-2 Pneumonia Treated With High-Titer Convalescent Plasma

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    The global SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic continues to be devastating in many areas. Treatment options have been limited and convalescent donor plasma has been used by many centers to transfer passive neutralizing antibodies to patients with respiratory involvement. The results often vary by institution and are complicated by the nature and quality of the donor plasma itself, the timing of administration and the clinical aspects of the recipients. SARS-CoV-2 infection is known to be associated with an increase in the blood concentrations of several inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, as part of the overall immune response to the virus and consequential to mediated lung pathology. Some of these correlates contribute to the cytokine storm syndrome and acute respiratory distress syndrome, often resulting in fatality. A Phase IIa clinical trial at our institution using high neutralizing titer convalescent plasma transfer gave us the unique opportunity to study the elevations of correlates in the first 10 days after infusion. Plasma recipients were divided into hospitalized COVID-19 pneumonia patients who did not (Track 2) or did (Track 3) require mechanical ventilation. Several cytokines were elevated in the patients of each Track and some continued to rise through Day 10, while others initially increased and then subsided. Furthermore, elevations in MIP-1α, MIP-1β and CRP correlated with disease progression of Track 2 recipients. Overall, our observations serve as a foundation for further study of these correlates and the identification of potential biomarkers to improve upon convalescent plasma therapy and to drive more successful patient outcomes

    The Mesoproterozoic Maz terrane in the Western Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina, equivalent to the Arequipa-Antofalla block of southern Peru? : implications for West Gondwana margin evolution

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    The rocks of Sierra de Maz and Sierra del Espinal (Western Sierras Pampeanas) represent pre-Famatinian (Ordovician) basement. Isotope compositions (Nd and Pb) of metasedimentary rocks and SHRIMP U–Pb dating of detrital zircons, combined with other geological evidence, show that three parallel N–S domains can be recognized. The central Maz Domain contains pre-Grenvillian metasedimentary rocks deposited between 1.2 and 1.6 Ga, that underwent Grenvillian granulite facies metamorphism and were intruded by mafic igneous rocks and massif-type anorthosites. Metasedimentary rocks have high Nd TDM ages (1.7–2.7 Ga) and very radiogenic Pb (μ = 9.8–10.2), suggesting provenance from reworked early Proterozoic or Archean continental crust. The domains to the east and west of the Maz Domain consist of three metasedimentary sequences with Nd TDM ages between 1.2 and 1.6 Ga and variably radiogenic Pb (μ = 9.6–10.0). U–Pb SHRIMP dating of detrital zircons, Nd TDM model ages and comparison with other data suggest that these sequences are post-Grenvillian, i.e., Neoproterozoic and/or early Paleozoic. The Maz Domain is interpreted as a suspect terrane similar to the northern Arequipa–Antofalla craton that forms the basement of the Central Andes; both underwent Grenville-age orogeny and were probably once continuous along the western margin of Amazonia (West Gondwana)