1,031 research outputs found

    A small-scale testbed for large-scale reliable computing

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    High performance computing (HPC) systems frequently suffer errors and failures from hardware components that negatively impact the performance of jobs run on these systems. We analyzed system logs from two HPC systems at Purdue University and created statistical models for memory and hard disk errors. We created a small-scale error injection testbed—using a customized QEMU build, libvirt, and Python—for HPC application programmers to test and debug their programs in a faulty environment so that programmers can write more robust and resilient programs before deploying them on an actual HPC system. The deliverables for this project are the fault injection program, the modified QEMU source code, and the statistical models used for driving the injection

    Eros, Paideia and Arete: The lesson of Plato\u27s symposium

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    Commentators of Plato\u27s Symposium rarely recognize the importance of traditional Greek conceptions of Eros, paideia and arete in understanding Plato\u27s critique of the various educational models presented in the dialogue. I will show how Plato contests these models by proposing that education should consist of philosophy. On this interpretation, ancient Greek pedagogy culminates in a philosophical education. For this new form of education, the dialogical model supplants the traditional practices of kleos and poetic mimsis, inextricably bound to archaia paideia and traditional forms of education. Plato\u27s Socrates is searching for knowledge and immortality through an application of the philosophical method, one that relies on a conception of Eros and propagation. For Plato\u27s Socrates, it is through Eros that ancient Greek paideia educates in matters of arete, but eros is not a passion for kleos or for a beautiful young man

    Chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometer for the in situ measurement of methyl hydrogen peroxide

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    A new approach for measuring gas-phase methyl hydrogen peroxide [(MHP) CH_3OOH] utilizing chemical ionization mass spectrometry is presented. Tandem mass spectrometry is used to avoid mass interferences that hindered previous attempts to measure atmospheric CH_3OOH with CF_3O− clustering chemistry. CH_3OOH has been successfully measured in situ using this technique during both airborne and ground-based campaigns. The accuracy and precision for the MHP measurement are a function of water vapor mixing ratio. Typical precision at 500 pptv MHP and 100 ppmv H_2O is ±80 pptv (2 sigma) for a 1 s integration period. The accuracy at 100 ppmv H_2O is estimated to be better than ±40%. Chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry shows considerable promise for the determination of in situ atmospheric trace gas mixing ratios where isobaric compounds or mass interferences impede accurate measurements

    The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) Field Campaign

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    The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) field experiment produced an exceptional dataset on thunderstorms, including their dynamical, physical, and electrical structures and their impact on the chemical composition of the troposphere. The field experiment gathered detailed information on the chemical composition of the inflow and outflow regions of midlatitude thunderstorms in northeast Colorado, west Texas to central Oklahoma, and northern Alabama. A unique aspect of the DC3 strategy was to locate and sample the convective outflow a day after active convection in order to measure the chemical transformations within the upper-tropospheric convective plume. These data are being analyzed to investigate transport and dynamics of the storms, scavenging of soluble trace gases and aerosols, production of nitrogen oxides by lightning, relationships between lightning flash rates and storm parameters, chemistry in the upper troposphere that is affected by the convection, and related source characterization of the three sampling regions. DC3 also documented biomass-burning plumes and the interactions of these plumes with deep convection

    Uncertainty Aware ML-based surrogate models for particle accelerators: A Study at the Fermilab Booster Accelerator Complex

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    Standard deep learning methods, such as Ensemble Models, Bayesian Neural Networks and Quantile Regression Models provide estimates to prediction uncertainties for data-driven deep learning models. However, they can be limited in their applications due to their heavy memory, inference cost, and ability to properly capture out-of-distribution uncertainties. Additionally, some of these models require post-training calibration which limits their ability to be used for continuous learning applications. In this paper, we present a new approach to provide prediction with calibrated uncertainties that includes out-of-distribution contributions and compare it to standard methods on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) Booster accelerator complex

    Airborne measurements of western U.S. wildfire emissions: Comparison with prescribed burning and air quality implications

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    Wildfires emit significant amounts of pollutants that degrade air quality. Plumes from three wildfires in the western U.S. were measured from aircraft during the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC^4RS) and the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP), both in summer 2013. This study reports an extensive set of emission factors (EFs) for over 80 gases and 5 components of submicron particulate matter (PM_1) from these temperate wildfires. These include rarely, or never before, measured oxygenated volatile organic compounds and multifunctional organic nitrates. The observed EFs are compared with previous measurements of temperate wildfires, boreal forest fires, and temperate prescribed fires. The wildfires emitted high amounts of PM_1 (with organic aerosol (OA) dominating the mass) with an average EF that is more than 2 times the EFs for prescribed fires. The measured EFs were used to estimate the annual wildfire emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total nonmethane organic compounds, and PM_1 from 11 western U.S. states. The estimated gas emissions are generally comparable with the 2011 National Emissions Inventory (NEI). However, our PM_1 emission estimate (1530 ± 570 Gg yr^(−1)) is over 3 times that of the NEI PM_(2.5) estimate and is also higher than the PM_(2.5) emitted from all other sources in these states in the NEI. This study indicates that the source of OA from biomass burning in the western states is significantly underestimated. In addition, our results indicate that prescribed burning may be an effective method to reduce fine particle emissions

    Organic nitrate chemistry and its implications for nitrogen budgets in an isoprene- and monoterpene-rich atmosphere: constraints from aircraft (SEAC^4RS) and ground-based (SOAS) observations in the Southeast US

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    Formation of organic nitrates (RONO_2) during oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs: isoprene, monoterpenes) is a significant loss pathway for atmospheric nitrogen oxide radicals (NO_x), but the chemistry of RONO_2 formation and degradation remains uncertain. Here we implement a new BVOC oxidation mechanism (including updated isoprene chemistry, new monoterpene chemistry, and particle uptake of RONO_2) in the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model with  ∼  25  ×  25 km^2 resolution over North America. We evaluate the model using aircraft (SEAC^4RS) and ground-based (SOAS) observations of NO_x, BVOCs, and RONO_2 from the Southeast US in summer 2013. The updated simulation successfully reproduces the concentrations of individual gas- and particle-phase RONO_2 species measured during the campaigns. Gas-phase isoprene nitrates account for 25–50 % of observed RONO_2 in surface air, and we find that another 10 % is contributed by gas-phase monoterpene nitrates. Observations in the free troposphere show an important contribution from long-lived nitrates derived from anthropogenic VOCs. During both campaigns, at least 10 % of observed boundary layer RONO_2 were in the particle phase. We find that aerosol uptake followed by hydrolysis to HNO_3 accounts for 60 % of simulated gas-phase RONO_2 loss in the boundary layer. Other losses are 20 % by photolysis to recycle NO_x and 15 % by dry deposition. RONO_2 production accounts for 20 % of the net regional NO_x sink in the Southeast US in summer, limited by the spatial segregation between BVOC and NO_x emissions. This segregation implies that RONO_2 production will remain a minor sink for NO_x in the Southeast US in the future even as NO_x emissions continue to decline

    Formation of Low Volatility Organic Compounds and Secondary Organic Aerosol from Isoprene Hydroxyhydroperoxide Low-NO Oxidation

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    Gas-phase low volatility organic compounds (LVOC), produced from oxidation of isoprene 4-hydroxy-3-hydroperoxide (4,3-ISOPOOH) under low-NO conditions, were observed during the FIXCIT chamber study. Decreases in LVOC directly correspond to appearance and growth in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) of consistent elemental composition, indicating that LVOC condense (at OA below 1 μg m^(–3)). This represents the first simultaneous measurement of condensing low volatility species from isoprene oxidation in both the gas and particle phases. The SOA formation in this study is separate from previously described isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX) uptake. Assigning all condensing LVOC signals to 4,3-ISOPOOH oxidation in the chamber study implies a wall-loss corrected non-IEPOX SOA mass yield of ∼4%. By contrast to monoterpene oxidation, in which extremely low volatility VOC (ELVOC) constitute the organic aerosol, in the isoprene system LVOC with saturation concentrations from 10^(–2) to 10 μg m^(–3) are the main constituents. These LVOC may be important for the growth of nanoparticles in environments with low OA concentrations. LVOC observed in the chamber were also observed in the atmosphere during SOAS-2013 in the Southeastern United States, with the expected diurnal cycle. This previously uncharacterized aerosol formation pathway could account for ∼5.0 Tg yr^(–1) of SOA production, or 3.3% of global SOA

    Gas Phase Production and Loss of Isoprene Epoxydiols

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    Isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) form in high yields from the OH-initiated oxidation of isoprene under low-NO conditions. These compounds contribute significantly to secondary organic aerosol formation. Their gas-phase chemistry has, however, remained largely unexplored. In this study, we characterize the formation of IEPOX isomers from the oxidation of isoprene by OH. We find that cis-β- and trans-β-IEPOX are the dominant isomers produced, and that they are created in an approximate ratio of 1:2 from the low-NO oxidation of isoprene. Three isomers of IEPOX, including cis-β- and trans-β, were synthesized and oxidized by OH in environmental chambers under high- and low-NO conditions. We find that IEPOX reacts with OH at 299 K with rate coefficients of (0.84 ± 0.07) × 10^(–11), (1.52 ± 0.07) × 10^(–11), and (0.98 ± 0.05) × 10^(–11) cm^3 molecule^(–1) s^(–1) for the δ1, cis-β, and trans-β isomers. Finally, yields of the first-generation products of IEPOX + OH oxidation were measured, and a new mechanism of IEPOX oxidation is proposed here to account for the observed products. The substantial yield of glyoxal and methylglyoxal from IEPOX oxidation may help explain elevated levels of those compounds observed in low-NO environments with high isoprene emissions

    Rapid deposition of oxidized biogenic compounds to a temperate forest

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    We report fluxes and dry deposition velocities for 16 atmospheric compounds above a southeastern United States forest, including: hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2), nitric acid (HNO_3), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide, peroxyacetic acid, organic hydroxy nitrates, and other multifunctional species derived from the oxidation of isoprene and monoterpenes. The data suggest that dry deposition is the dominant daytime sink for small, saturated oxygenates. Greater than 6 wt %C emitted as isoprene by the forest was returned by dry deposition of its oxidized products. Peroxides account for a large fraction of the oxidant flux, possibly eclipsing ozone in more pristine regions. The measured organic nitrates comprise a sizable portion (15%) of the oxidized nitrogen input into the canopy, with HNO_3 making up the balance. We observe that water-soluble compounds (e.g., strong acids and hydroperoxides) deposit with low surface resistance whereas compounds with moderate solubility (e.g., organic nitrates and hydroxycarbonyls) or poor solubility (e.g., HCN) exhibited reduced uptake at the surface of plants. To first order, the relative deposition velocities of water-soluble compounds are constrained by their molecular diffusivity. From resistance modeling, we infer a substantial emission flux of formic acid at the canopy level (∼1 nmol m^(−2)⋅s^(−1)). GEOS−Chem, a widely used atmospheric chemical transport model, currently underestimates dry deposition for most molecules studied in this work. Reconciling GEOS−Chem deposition velocities with observations resulted in up to a 45% decrease in the simulated surface concentration of trace gases