39 research outputs found

    Characterization of Scintillation Light in Large Liquid Argon Detectors and the Implications for Proton Decay Searches

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    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a planned long baseline neutrino experi- ment. The detector will be comprised of four modules with 10kt of active volume each, making it an ideal target to neutrino oscillation physics and searches for proton decay. ProtoDUNE-SP was a single-phase liquid argon time projection chamber - a prototype for the first far detector module of DUNE with an active volume of 700 tons operating until 2020. It was installed at the CERN Neutrino Platform and took particle beam and cosmic ray data over its two year lifespan. Liquid argon scin- tillation light is still an active subject of study with open questions about the impact of scattering and absorption in such a large detector. Here, we combine ProtoDUNE-SP cosmic-ray data with its large photon detector coverage and large drift volume to measure the Rayleigh scattering length of pure liquid argon, nitrogen contaminated argon, and a xenon doped nitrogen ‚Äď argon mixture. The rayleigh scattering length of the xenon mixture was then implemented in a study of the proton decay sensitivity of a single DUNE module, to see the effects of xenon doping

    Estimating the value of irrigation water in Georgia

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    In 1999, the state of Georgia imposed a moratorium on the issuance of new irrigation permits in the Flint River Basin, creating scarcity with respect to both access to irrigation water and the amount of water available. A hedonic model was developed to examine the extent to which both sources of scarcity have been capitalized. Agricultural land sales from 1977-2002 in Sumter County were used to estimate the model. GIS was used to merge diverse data sets related to land sales and irrigation permits, and to generate spatial variables for analysis. Preliminary results suggest that the moratorium has induced a premium for holding a permit after the moratorium, and permit capacity is valued at $7.26 for each acre-inch/acre per day.Sponsored by: Georgia Environmental Protection Division U.S. Geological Survey, Georgia Water Science Center U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service Georgia Institute of Technology, Georgia Water Resources Institute The University of Georgia, Water Resources Facult

    The Influence of Manga on the Graphic Novel

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    This material has been published in The Cambridge History of the Graphic Novel edited by Jan Baetens, Hugo Frey, Stephen E. Tabachnick. This version is free to view and download for personal use only. Not for re-distribution, re-sale or use in derivative works. © Cambridge University PressProviding a range of cogent examples, this chapter describes the influences of the Manga genre of comics strip on the Graphic Novel genre, over the last 35 years, considering the functions of domestication, foreignisation and transmedia on readers, markets and forms

    31st Annual Meeting and Associated Programs of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2016) : part two

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    Background The immunological escape of tumors represents one of the main ob- stacles to the treatment of malignancies. The blockade of PD-1 or CTLA-4 receptors represented a milestone in the history of immunotherapy. However, immune checkpoint inhibitors seem to be effective in specific cohorts of patients. It has been proposed that their efficacy relies on the presence of an immunological response. Thus, we hypothesized that disruption of the PD-L1/PD-1 axis would synergize with our oncolytic vaccine platform PeptiCRAd. Methods We used murine B16OVA in vivo tumor models and flow cytometry analysis to investigate the immunological background. Results First, we found that high-burden B16OVA tumors were refractory to combination immunotherapy. However, with a more aggressive schedule, tumors with a lower burden were more susceptible to the combination of PeptiCRAd and PD-L1 blockade. The therapy signifi- cantly increased the median survival of mice (Fig. 7). Interestingly, the reduced growth of contralaterally injected B16F10 cells sug- gested the presence of a long lasting immunological memory also against non-targeted antigens. Concerning the functional state of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), we found that all the immune therapies would enhance the percentage of activated (PD-1pos TIM- 3neg) T lymphocytes and reduce the amount of exhausted (PD-1pos TIM-3pos) cells compared to placebo. As expected, we found that PeptiCRAd monotherapy could increase the number of antigen spe- cific CD8+ T cells compared to other treatments. However, only the combination with PD-L1 blockade could significantly increase the ra- tio between activated and exhausted pentamer positive cells (p= 0.0058), suggesting that by disrupting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis we could decrease the amount of dysfunctional antigen specific T cells. We ob- served that the anatomical location deeply influenced the state of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. In fact, TIM-3 expression was in- creased by 2 fold on TILs compared to splenic and lymphoid T cells. In the CD8+ compartment, the expression of PD-1 on the surface seemed to be restricted to the tumor micro-environment, while CD4 + T cells had a high expression of PD-1 also in lymphoid organs. Interestingly, we found that the levels of PD-1 were significantly higher on CD8+ T cells than on CD4+ T cells into the tumor micro- environment (p < 0.0001). Conclusions In conclusion, we demonstrated that the efficacy of immune check- point inhibitors might be strongly enhanced by their combination with cancer vaccines. PeptiCRAd was able to increase the number of antigen-specific T cells and PD-L1 blockade prevented their exhaus- tion, resulting in long-lasting immunological memory and increased median survival

    Universal Method for Creating Optically Active Nanostructures on Layered Materials

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    The ability to form patterned surface nanostructures has revolutionized the miniaturization of electronics and led to the discovery of emergent behaviors unseen in macroscopic systems. However, the creation of such nanostructures typically requires multiple processing steps, a high level of technical expertise, and highly sophisticated equipment. In this work, we have discovered a simple method to create nanostructures with control size and positioning in a single processing step using a standard scanning electron microscope. The technique can be applied to a wide range of systems and was successful in every layered material tested. Patterned nanostructures were formed on graphite, topological insulators, novel superconductors, and layered transition metal dichalcogenides. The nanostructures were formed via the incorporation of carbon nanoparticles into the samples in a novel form of intercalation. It appears that the electron beam interacts with residual organic molecules available on the sample surface, making it possible for them to intercalate between the layers in their crystal structure and break down into carbon. These carbon nanoparticles have strong broad-wavelength interactions in the visible light range, making these nanostructures easily detectable in an optical microscope and of interest for a range of nanoscale electro-optical devices