123 research outputs found

    Surface Functionalisation of biomaterials with alkaline phosphatase

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    Two different glasses, one biocompatible but with a low bioactivity index (G1) and the other with an higher bioactivity index (G2), the ceramic version of the second glass and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) have been functionalizated by anchoring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) on their surfaces. The enzyme has been chosen because it is involved in mineralization processes of hard tissues and is a model for more complex ones. ALP has been grafted on glasses and glass-ceramics surfaces both with and without samples silanization and on metallic surfaces with and without tresyl chloride activation. Samples have been analyzed at each step of the functionalization process in order to verify i

    Surface modification of Ti-6Al-4V alloy for biomineralization and specific biological response: Part I, inorganic modification

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    Titanium and its alloys represent the gold standard for orthopaedic and dental prosthetic devices, because of their good mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Recent research has been focused on surface treatments designed to promote their rapid osteointegration also in case of poor bone quality. A new surface treatment has been investigated in this research work, in order to improve tissue integration of titanium based implants. The surface treatment is able to induce a bioactive behaviour, without the introduction of a coating, and preserving mechanical properties of Ti6Al4V substrates (fatigue resistance). The application of the proposed technique results in a complex surface topography, characterized by the combination of a micro-roughness and a nanotexture, which can be coupled with the conventional macroroughness induced by blasting. Modified metallic surfaces are rich in hydroxyls groups: this feature is extremely important for inorganic bioactivity (in vitro and in vivo apatite precipitation) and also for further functionalization procedures (grafting of biomolecules). Modified Ti6Al4V induced hydroxyapatite precipitation after 15 days soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). The process was optimised in order to not induce cracks or damages on the surface. The surface oxide layer presents high scratch resistance

    Deposition of Antioxidant and Cytocompatible Caffeic Acid-Based Thin Films onto Ti6Al4V Alloys through Hexamethylenediamine-Mediated Crosslinking

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    A promising approach for advanced bone implants is thedepositionon titanium surfaces of organic thin films with improved therapeuticperformances. Herein, we reported the efficient dip-coating depositionof caffeic acid (CA)-based films on both polished and chemically pre-treatedTi6Al4V alloys by exploiting hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) crosslinkingability. The formation of benzacridine systems, resulting from theinteraction of CA with the amino groups of HMDA, as reported in previousstudies, was suggested by the yellow/green color of the coatings.The coated surfaces were characterized by means of the Folin-Ciocalteumethod, fluorescence microscopy, water contact angle measurements,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), zeta-potential measurements,and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, confirming the presenceof a uniform coating on the titanium surfaces. The optimal mechanicaladhesion of the coating, especially on the chemically pre-treatedsubstrate, was also demonstrated by the tape adhesion test. Interestingly,both films exhibited marked antioxidant properties (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyland ferric reducing antioxidant power assays) that persisted overtime and were not lost even after prolonged storage of the material.The feature of the coatings in terms of the exposed groups (XPS andzeta potential titration evidence) was apparently dependent on thesurface pre-treatment of the titanium substrate. Cytocompatibility,scavenger antioxidant activity, and antibacterial properties of thedeveloped coatings were evaluated. The most promising results wereobtained in the case of the chemically pre-treated CA/HMDA-based coatedsurface that showed good cytocompatibility and high reactive oxygenspecies' scavenging ability, preventing their intracellularaccumulation under pro-inflammatory conditions; moreover, an anti-foulingeffect preventing the formation of 3D biofilm-like bacterial aggregateswas observed by scanning electron microscopy. These results open newperspectives for the development of innovative titanium surfaces withthin coatings from naturally occurring phenols for bone contact implants

    Fast and efficient piezo-photocatalytic mineralization of ibuprofen by BiOBr nanosheets under solar light irradiation

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    ABSTRACT: In the present work, the piezoelectric-like behavior of BiOBr nanosheets was utilized to suppress the recombination of photoexcited charges. The piezo-photocatalytic properties of an easily synthesized photocatalyst were tested for the degradation of ibuprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Under ultrasound and solar light irradiation, the reaction rate for ibuprofen mineralization was found to be higher in the BiOBr nanosheets compared with those from the individual photocatalysis and piezocatalysis approaches, respectively. A percentage of synergy higher than 60% was calculated, resulting in the achievement of complete mineralization in less than 30 min. Based on the results, a possible piezo-photocatalytic mechanism, based on the separation of photoinduced charges and the formation of highly active radicals, has been proposed. Furthermore, various scavengers were used to identify the active species by trapping holes and radicals generated during the piezo-photocatalytic degradation process. The main transformation products formed during both photo- and piezo-photodegradation processes were identified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS), and the ibuprofen degradation pathway was proposed. The very promising results offer an advantageous approach to drug mineralization without the need for costly materials or expensive processes

    Reducing the environmental impact of surgery on a global scale: systematic review and co-prioritization with healthcare workers in 132 countries

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    Abstract Background Healthcare cannot achieve net-zero carbon without addressing operating theatres. The aim of this study was to prioritize feasible interventions to reduce the environmental impact of operating theatres. Methods This study adopted a four-phase Delphi consensus co-prioritization methodology. In phase 1, a systematic review of published interventions and global consultation of perioperative healthcare professionals were used to longlist interventions. In phase 2, iterative thematic analysis consolidated comparable interventions into a shortlist. In phase 3, the shortlist was co-prioritized based on patient and clinician views on acceptability, feasibility, and safety. In phase 4, ranked lists of interventions were presented by their relevance to high-income countries and low–middle-income countries. Results In phase 1, 43 interventions were identified, which had low uptake in practice according to 3042 professionals globally. In phase 2, a shortlist of 15 intervention domains was generated. In phase 3, interventions were deemed acceptable for more than 90 per cent of patients except for reducing general anaesthesia (84 per cent) and re-sterilization of ‘single-use’ consumables (86 per cent). In phase 4, the top three shortlisted interventions for high-income countries were: introducing recycling; reducing use of anaesthetic gases; and appropriate clinical waste processing. In phase 4, the top three shortlisted interventions for low–middle-income countries were: introducing reusable surgical devices; reducing use of consumables; and reducing the use of general anaesthesia. Conclusion This is a step toward environmentally sustainable operating environments with actionable interventions applicable to both high– and low–middle–income countries