1,667 research outputs found

    What do older people learn from young people? : Intergenerational learning in ‘day centre’ community settings in Malta

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    This study analyses what motivates older people to attend ‘day centres’ in Malta and what they believe that they derive from young people who carry out their placements at these day ‘centres’ These young people, who are aged 16–17, attend a vocational college in Malta and are studying health and social care. The study is based on a qualitative approach and employs the usage of focus groups. The main findings are that the elderly see the students as helping them on an emotional level by giving them encouragement, and on a practical level, by offering them insights that help them in modern-day life

    Mapping the breast cancer metastatic cascade onto ctDNA using genetic and epigenetic clonal tracking.

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    Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) allows tracking of the evolution of human cancers at high resolution, overcoming many limitations of tissue biopsies. However, exploiting ctDNA to determine how a patient's cancer is evolving in order to aid clinical decisions remains difficult. This is because ctDNA is a mix of fragmented alleles, and the contribution of different cancer deposits to ctDNA is largely unknown. Profiling ctDNA almost invariably requires prior knowledge of what genomic alterations to track. Here, we leverage on a rapid autopsy programme to demonstrate that unbiased genomic characterisation of several metastatic sites and concomitant ctDNA profiling at whole-genome resolution reveals the extent to which ctDNA is representative of widespread disease. We also present a methylation profiling method that allows tracking evolutionary changes in ctDNA at single-molecule resolution without prior knowledge. These results have critical implications for the use of liquid biopsies to monitor cancer evolution in humans and guide treatment

    Three-dimensional CFD simulations with large displacement of the geometries using a connectivity-change moving mesh approach

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    This paper deals with three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations involving 3D moving geometries with large displacements on unstructured meshes. Such simulations are of great value to industry, but remain very time-consuming. A robust moving mesh algorithm coupling an elasticity-like mesh deformation solution and mesh optimizations was proposed in previous works, which removes the need for global remeshing when performing large displacements. The optimizations, and in particular generalized edge/face swapping, preserve the initial quality of the mesh throughout the simulation. We propose to integrate an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian compressible flow solver into this process to demonstrate its capabilities in a full CFD computation context. This solver relies on a local enforcement of the discrete geometric conservation law to preserve the order of accuracy of the time integration. The displacement of the geometries is either imposed, or driven by fluid–structure interaction (FSI). In the latter case, the six degrees of freedom approach for rigid bodies is considered. Finally, several 3D imposed-motion and FSI examples are given to validate the proposed approach, both in academic and industrial configurations

    Operando XANES study of simulated transient cycles on a Pd-only three-way catalyst

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    A model Pd-only three-way catalyst has been subjected to simulated driving conditions of natural gas and gasoline operation in an operando reactor cell for X-ray absorption spectroscopy that included alternated, but longer than real oscillations, rich and lean periods and a high temperature surge (850\u2013900 \ub0C). The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra indicated that metallic palladium is observed in the whole temperature range investigated (up to 900 \ub0C) and irrespective of the air/fuel ratio. In both natural gas and gasoline cycles, the XANES data show that the PdO reduced in the rich periods cannot be restored in the lean periods. With this background, activity for methane abatement in the high temperature regime is greatly affected by the oxidation state of palladium rather than by the change of air/fuel ratio. In the case of propene oxidation, while Pd also remains predominantly in the reduced state, activity is dictated by the oxygen concentration in the feedstock. Comparison between the two hydrocarbons demonstrates that the oxidation state of Pd may be responsible for observed methane emissions under realistic operating circumstances. Moreover, the experiments demonstrate that reduced Pd may be continuously present during operation in agreement with observations on real catalytic converters. Although this may be the average oxidation state of Pd, more advanced probes are certainly necessary to capture variations of oxidation state under the fast oscillatory conditions needed to imitate real operation

    The inter-observer agreement of examining pre-school children with acute cough: a nested study

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    BACKGROUND: The presence of clinical signs have implications for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the inter-observer agreement of clinical signs in pre-school children presenting to primary care. METHODS: A nested study comparing two clinical assessments within a prospective cohort of 256 pre-school children with acute cough recruited from eight general practices in Leicestershire, UK. We examined agreement (using kappa statistics) between unstandardised and standardised clinical assessments of tachypnoea, chest signs and fever. RESULTS: Kappa values were poor or fair for all clinical signs (range 0.12 to 0.39) with chest signs the most reliable. CONCLUSIONS: Primary care clinicians should be aware that clinical signs may be unreliable when making diagnosis, prognosis and treatment decisions in pre-school children with cough. Future research should aim to further our understanding of how best to identify abnormal clinical signs

    Ongoing monkeypox virus outbreak, Portugal, 29 April to 23 May 2022

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    Up to 27 May 2022, Portugal has detected 96 confirmed cases of monkeypox. We describe 27 confirmed cases (median age: 33 years (range: 22–51); all males), with an earliest symptom onset date of 29 April. Almost all cases (n = 25) live in the Lisbon and Tagus Valley health region. Most cases were neither part of identified transmission chains, nor linked to travel or had contact with symptomatic persons or with animals, suggesting the possible previously undetected spread of monkeypox.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Colorectal cancer residual disease at maximal response to EGFR blockade displays a druggable Paneth cell–like phenotype

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    Blockade of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) causes tumor regression in some patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, residual disease reservoirs typically remain even after maximal response to therapy, leading to relapse. Using patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), we observed that mCRC cells surviving EGFR inhibition exhibited gene expression patterns similar to those of a quiescent subpopulation of normal intestinal secretory precursors with Paneth cell characteristics. Compared with untreated tumors, these pseudodifferentiated tumor remnants had reduced expression of genes encoding EGFR-activating ligands, enhanced activity of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and HER3, and persistent signaling along the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. Clinically, properties of residual disease cells from the PDX models were detected in lingering tumors of responsive patients and in tumors of individuals who had experienced early recurrence. Mechanistically, residual tumor reprogramming after EGFR neutralization was mediated by inactivation of Yes-associated protein (YAP), a master regulator of intestinal epithelium recovery from injury. In preclinical trials, Pan-HER antibodies minimized residual disease, blunted PI3K signaling, and induced long-term tumor control after treatment discontinuation. We found that tolerance to EGFR inhibition is characterized by inactivation of an intrinsic lineage program that drives both regenerative signaling during intestinal repair and EGFR-dependent tumorigenesis. Thus, our results shed light on CRC lineage plasticity as an adaptive escape mechanism from EGFR-targeted therapy and suggest opportunities to preemptively target residual disease

    Measurement of the cross-section and charge asymmetry of WW bosons produced in proton-proton collisions at s=8\sqrt{s}=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    This paper presents measurements of the W+→Ό+ÎœW^+ \rightarrow \mu^+\nu and W−→Ό−ΜW^- \rightarrow \mu^-\nu cross-sections and the associated charge asymmetry as a function of the absolute pseudorapidity of the decay muon. The data were collected in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC and correspond to a total integrated luminosity of 20.2~\mbox{fb^{-1}}. The precision of the cross-section measurements varies between 0.8% to 1.5% as a function of the pseudorapidity, excluding the 1.9% uncertainty on the integrated luminosity. The charge asymmetry is measured with an uncertainty between 0.002 and 0.003. The results are compared with predictions based on next-to-next-to-leading-order calculations with various parton distribution functions and have the sensitivity to discriminate between them.Comment: 38 pages in total, author list starting page 22, 5 figures, 4 tables, submitted to EPJC. All figures including auxiliary figures are available at https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/PAPERS/STDM-2017-13