12,266 research outputs found

    Making the Most of Out-of-School Time

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    Evaluates the MOST initiative, which was launched in 1994 in Boston, Chicago, and Seattle, to improve the quantity and quality of before- and after-school programs for 5- to 14-year-olds, especially for families in low-income communities

    New on the Shelf: Teens in the Library

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    Details a number of positive effects of the Wallace Foundation's Public Libraries as Partners in Youth Development initiative, and explores what is necessary to implement and sustain high-quality youth programs in public libraries

    Effects of an Expressive Writing Intervention Aimed at Improving Academic Performance by Reducing Test Anxiety

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    This study examined the effectiveness of a brief, class-wide, expressive writing intervention aimed at improving academic performance and decreasing test anxiety. This study included 110 students from six undergraduate psychology classes. In the first phase of the study, students completed a trait test anxiety measure and a demographic survey. In the second phase of the study, students completed a pre-intervention state test anxiety measure, responded to a 10-minute writing prompt (expressive or neutral), and completed the same state test anxiety measure, and then were administered an in-class exam. Approximately half the students were randomly assigned to the expressive writing group, and asked to write about their concerns and worries regarding the exam; and the other half assigned to the neutral writing group, and asked to write about how they used their time during the past 24 hours. Contrary to some previous studies (Ramirez & Beilock, 2011; Park, Ramirez & Beilock), this study found no significant group differences between the expressive writing group and the neutral writing group in academic performance or change in test anxiety. This expressive writing intervention was found to be ineffective in improving academic performance and at decreasing test anxiety. Interestingly, the strongest predictor of exam performance was previous exam performance, and test anxiety was a very weak predictor of exam performance. Possible reasons for disparate research findings are discussed

    Whose Rights Matter Most? Fathers’ Rights, Joint Custody, and Domestic Violence

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    DOMESTIC RELATIONS Alimony and Child Support Generally: Clarify that a Motion to Enforce an Alimony or Child Support Order by Attachment for Contempt is Part of the Underlying Action and Does Not Constitute a New Action; Provide for the Nature of Contempt Proceedings as Part of the Underlying Alimony or Child Support Action; Provide that a New Filing Fee Is Not Required for Such Actions

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    The Act amends Code section 19-6-28, which relates to the enforcement of orders for alimony or child support. It strikes subsection (a) in its entirety, which granted courts the power to subject respondents to terms and conditions they deem proper to assure compliance with orders, including the power to punish violators to the same extent provided by law for contempt in other actions or proceedings. The Act replaces the former law with a new subsection (a) that provides the same powers, but also includes a provision that any compliance proceeding will be a part of the original action. The new subsection further provides that a motion for such enforcement will not require the filing of a new action or the payment of a new filing fee. The Act applies to previously entered support orders in addition to those entered on or after the effective date

    DOMESTIC RELATIONS Alimony and Child Support Generally: Clarify that a Motion to Enforce an Alimony or Child Support Order by Attachment for Contempt is Part of the Underlying Action and Does Not Constitute a New Action; Provide for the Nature of Contempt Proceedings as Part of the Underlying Alimony or Child Support Action; Provide that a New Filing Fee Is Not Required for Such Actions

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    The Act amends Code section 19-6-28, which relates to the enforcement of orders for alimony or child support. It strikes subsection (a) in its entirety, which granted courts the power to subject respondents to terms and conditions they deem proper to assure compliance with orders, including the power to punish violators to the same extent provided by law for contempt in other actions or proceedings. The Act replaces the former law with a new subsection (a) that provides the same powers, but also includes a provision that any compliance proceeding will be a part of the original action. The new subsection further provides that a motion for such enforcement will not require the filing of a new action or the payment of a new filing fee. The Act applies to previously entered support orders in addition to those entered on or after the effective date

    The impact of parents' expectations on parenting behaviour: an experimental investigation

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    Over-involved parenting is commonly hypothesized to be it risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders in childhood. This parenting style may result from parental attempts to prevent child distress based on expectations that the child will be unable to cope in a challenging situation. Naturalistic studies are limited in their ability to disentangle the overlapping contribution of child and parent factors in driving parental behaviours. To overcome this difficulty, an experimental study was conducted in which parental expectations of child distress were manipulated and the effects on parent behaviour and child mood were assessed. Fifty-two children (aged 7 - 11 years) and their primary caregiver participated. Parents were allocated to either a "positive" or a "negative" expectation group. Observations were made of the children and their parents interacting whilst completing a difficult anagram task. Parents given negative expectations of their child's response displayed higher levels of involvement. No differences were found on indices of child mood and behaviour and possible explanations for this are considered. The findings are consistent with suggestions that increased parental involvement may be a "natural" reaction to enhanced perceptions of child vulnerability and an attempt to avoid child distress

    A trans-diagnostic perspective on obsessive-compulsive disorder

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    © Cambridge University Press 2017. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.Progress in understanding the underlying neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has stalled in part because of the considerable problem of heterogeneity within this diagnostic category, and homogeneity across other putatively discrete, diagnostic categories. As psychiatry begins to recognize the shortcomings of a purely symptom-based psychiatric nosology, new data-driven approaches have begun to be utilized with the goal of solving these problems: specifically, identifying trans-diagnostic aspects of clinical phenomenology based on their association with neurobiological processes. In this review, we describe key methodological approaches to understanding OCD from this perspective and highlight the candidate traits that have already been identified as a result of these early endeavours. We discuss how important inferences can be made from pre-existing case-control studies as well as showcasing newer methods that rely on large general population datasets to refine and validate psychiatric phenotypes. As exemplars, we take 'compulsivity' and 'anxiety', putatively trans-diagnostic symptom dimensions that are linked to well-defined neurobiological mechanisms, goal-directed learning and error-related negativity, respectively. We argue that the identification of biologically valid, more homogeneous, dimensions such as these provides renewed optimism for identifying reliable genetic contributions to OCD and other disorders, improving animal models and critically, provides a path towards a future of more targeted psychiatric treatments.Peer reviewedFinal Published versio

    Online gaming addiction: the role of sensation seeking, self-control, neuroticism, aggression, state anxiety and trait anxiety

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    Research into online gaming has steadily increased over the last decade, although relatively little research has examined the relationship between online gaming addiction and personality factors. This study examined the relationship between a number of personality traits (sensation seeking, self-control, aggression, neuroticism, state anxiety, and trait anxiety) and online gaming addiction. Data were collected over a 1-month period using an opportunity sample of 123 university students at an East Midlands university in the United Kingdom. Gamers completed all the online questionnaires. Results of a multiple linear regression indicated that five traits (neuroticism, sensation seeking, trait anxiety, state anxiety, and aggression) displayed significant associations with online gaming addiction. The study suggests that certain personality traits may be important in the acquisition, development, and maintenance of online gaming addiction, although further research is needed to replicate the findings of the present study
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