302 research outputs found

    Standard operating procedure (SOP) for disk diffusion-based quorum sensing inhibition assays

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    Introduction: The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains is a severe global health issue, which is worsened by the inability of new antibiotics. Virulence inhibition is one of the novel strategies that have been proposed to combat bacterial pathogens more effectively, without the risk of exerting selection pressure on these microorganisms. Inhibition of bacterial cell-cell communication (quorum sensing; QS) is a promising approach however, rapid and cost-effective screening for compounds with QS-inhibitory activity is not yet well-established. Aims: The aim of the present study is to determine the ideal experimental conditions for the disk-diffusion based QSinhibitory assay with the most frequently used QS-signal molecule-producing and reporter strains. Methods: In our study, the effects of growth characteristics, incubation time, temperature and the used culture media were studied on the used bacterial strains and results of the disk-diffusion based QS-inhibitory assay. Results: Based on our results, the ideal experimental setting includes a modified Luria-Bertani medium (LB*; complemented with nutrients and microelements), incubation at room temperature (25 ¬įC) for 48 hours before the reading of results, where the density of the starting inocula has less influence of the results of the assay. Conclusion: Establishing standard operating procedures (SOPs) is a way to help carry out various operations, aiming to increase precision and efficiency. Adherence to the experimental settings defined based on our results may aid in improving the reproducibility, comparability and reliability of results obtained by this method

    New Roads Leading to Old Destinations: Efflux Pumps as Targets to Reverse Multidrug Resistance in Bacteria

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    Multidrug resistance (MDR) has appeared in response to selective pressures resulting from the incorrect use of antibiotics and other antimicrobials. This inappropriate application and mismanagement of antibiotics have led to serious problems in the therapy of infectious diseases. Bacteria can develop resistance by various mechanisms and one of the most important factors resulting in MDR is efflux pump-mediated resistance. Because of the importance of the efflux-related multidrug resistance the development of new therapeutic approaches aiming to inhibit bacterial efflux pumps is a promising way to combat bacteria having over-expressed MDR efflux systems. The definition of an efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) includes the ability to render the bacterium increasingly more sensitive to a given antibiotic or even reverse the multidrug resistant phenotype. In the recent years numerous EPIs have been developed, although so far their clinical application has not yet been achieved due to their in vivo toxicity and side effects. In this review, we aim to give a short overview of efflux mediated resistance in bacteria, EPI compounds of plant and synthetic origin, and the possible methods to investigate and screen EPI compounds in bacterial systems

    Synthesis of 4-Hydroxyquinolines as Potential Cytotoxic Agents

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    The synthesis of alkyl 2-(4-hydroxyquinolin-2-yl) acetates and 1-phenyl-4-(phenylamino)pyridine-2,6(1H,3H)-dione was optimised. Starting from 4-hydroxyquinolines (4HQs), aminomethylation was carried out via the modified Mannich reaction (mMr) applying formaldehyde and piperidine, but a second paraformaldehyde molecule was incorporated into the Mannich product. The reaction also afforded the formation of bisquinoline derivatives. A new 1H-azeto [1,2-a]quinoline derivative was synthesised in two different ways; namely starting from the aminomethylated product or from the ester-hydrolysed 4HQ. When the aldehyde component was replaced with aromatic aldehydes, Knoevenagel condensation took place affording the formation of the corresponding benzylidene derivatives, with the concomitant generation of bisquinolines. The reactivity of salicylaldehyde and hydroxynaphthaldehydes was tested; under these conditions, partially saturated lactones were formed through spontaneous ring closure. The activity of the derivatives was assessed using doxorubicin-sensitive and -resistant colon adenocarcinoma cell lines and normal human fibroblasts. Some derivatives possessed selective toxicity towards resistant cancer cells compared to doxorubicin-sensitive cancer cells and normal fibroblasts. Cytotoxic activity of the benzylidene derivatives and the corresponding Hammett‚ÄďBrown substituent were correlated

    Efflux pumps as targets to reverse multidrug resistance in bacteria

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    Multidrug resistance (MDR) has appeared in response to selective pressures resulting from the incorrect use of antibiotics and other antimicrobials. This inappropriate application and mismanagement of antibiotics have led to serious problems in the therapy of infectious diseases. Bacteria can develop resistance by various mechanisms and one of the most important factors resulting in MDR is efflux pump-mediated resistance. Because of the importance of the efflux-related multidrug resistance the development of new therapeutic approaches aiming to inhibit bacterial efflux pumps is a promising way to combat bacteria having over-expressed MDR efflux systems. The definition of an efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) includes the ability to render the bacterium increasingly more sensitive to a given antibiotic or even reverse the multidrug resistant phenotype. In the recent years numerous EPIs have been developed, although so far their clinical application has not yet been achieved due to their in vivo toxicity and side effects. In this review, we aim to give a short overview of efflux mediated resistance in bacteria, EPI compounds of plant and synthetic origin, and the possible methods to investigate and screen EPI compounds in bacterial systems.publishersversionpublishe

    Ultrasound absorption and entropy production in biological tissue: a novel approach to anticancer therapy

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    The entropy production of tumorous cells is higher than that of normal cells, and entropy flow is therefore directed from tumorous toward healthy cells. This results in information concerning the cancer propagating into the surrounding normal tissue. However, ultrasound absorption results in additional entropy production in tissues. The entropy mechanism possibly provides a basis for a novel approach to anticancer therapy through the use of ultrasound irradiation. Through the calculation of ultrasound-induced entropy production and comparison of the theoretical results with the experimental data on ultrasound absorption in biological tissues, we have demonstrated that ultrasound absorption will increase the entropy in normal tissue more efficiently than in tumorous tissue due to the more acidic nature of the latter. Consequently, the direction of entropy flow between these two kinds of cells may be reversed on exposure to ultrasound. The higher entropy accumulation of normal cells during ultrasound irradiation may possibly lead to a change in the original direction of entropy flow and avoid the propagation of information on the cancer into the normal tissues. We suggest that low-intensity, low-frequency ultrasound irradiation may be an efficient tool for the therapy of solid tumors

    Lycorine Carbamate Derivatives for Reversing P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Multidrug Resistance in Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

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    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major challenge in cancer chemotherapy. Aiming at generating a small library of anticancer compounds for overcoming MDR, lycorine (1), a major Amaryllidaceae alkaloid isolated from Pancratium maritimum, was derivatized. Thirty-one new compounds (2‚Äď32) were obtained by chemical transformation of the hydroxyl groups of lycorine into mono- and di-carbamates. Compounds 1‚Äď32 were evaluated as MDR reversers, through the rhodamine-123 accumulation assay by flow cytometry and chemosensitivity assays, in resistant human colon adenocarcinoma cancer cells (Colo 320), overexpressing P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1). Significant inhibition of P-gp efflux activity was observed for the di-carbamate derivatives, mainly those containing aromatic substituents, at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Compound 5, bearing a benzyl substituent, and compounds 9 and 25, with phenethyl moieties, were among the most active, exhibiting strong inhibition at 2 ¬ĶM, being more active than verapamil at 10-fold higher concentration. In drug combination assays, most compounds were able to synergize doxorubicin. Moreover, some derivatives showed a selective antiproliferative effect toward resistant cells, having a collateral sensitivity effect. In the ATPase assay, selected compounds (2, 5, 9, 19, 25, and 26) were shown to behave as inhibitors

    Reversal of Multidrug Resistance by Symmetrical Selenoesters in Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

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    Recently, selenium containing derivatives have attracted more attention in medicinal chemistry. In the present work, the anticancer activity of symmetrical selenoesters was investigated by studying the reversal of efflux pump-related and apoptosis resistance in sensitive and resistant human colon adenocarcinoma cells expressing the ABCB1 protein. The combined effect of the compounds with doxorubicin was demonstrated with a checkerboard assay. The ABCB1 inhibitory and the apoptosis-inducing effects of the derivatives were measured with flow cytometry. Whole transcriptome sequencing was carried out on Illumina platform upon the treatment of resistant cells with the most potent derivatives. One ketone and three methyl ester selenoesters showed synergistic or weak synergistic interaction with doxorubicin, respectively. Ketone selenoesters were the most potent ABCB1 inhibitors and apoptosis inducers. Nitrile selenoesters could induce moderate early and late apoptotic processes that could be explained by their ABCB1 modulating properties. The transcriptome analysis revealed that symmetrical selenoesters may influence the redox state of the cells and interfere with metastasis formation. It can be assumed that these symmetrical selenocompounds possess toxic, DNA-damaging effects due to the presence of two selenium atoms in the molecule, which may be augmented by the presence of symmetrical groups

    Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria: Rubik's cube of clinical microbiology?

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    Anaerobic bacteria have pivotal roles in the microbiota of humans and they are significant infectious agents involved in many pathological processes, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Their isolation, cultivation and correct identification differs significantly from the workup of aerobic species, although the use of new technologies (e.g., matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, whole genome sequencing) changed anaerobic diagnostics dramatically. In the past, antimicrobial susceptibility of these microorganisms showed predictable patterns and empirical therapy could be safely administered but recently a steady and clear increase in the resistance for several important drugs (beta-lactams, clindamycin) has been observed worldwide. For this reason, antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic isolates for surveillance purposes or otherwise is of paramount importance but the availability of these testing methods is usually limited. In this present review, our aim was to give an overview of the methods currently available for the identification (using phenotypic characteristics, biochemical testing, gas-liquid chromatography, MALDI-TOF MS and WGS) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (agar dilution, broth microdilution, disk diffusion, gradient tests, automated systems, phenotypic and molecular resistance detection techniques) of anaerobes, when should these methods be used and what are the recent developments in resistance patterns of anaerobic bacteria

    Search for ABCB1 modulators among 2-amine-5-arylideneimidazolones as a new perspective to overcome cancer multidrug resistance

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    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a severe problem in the treatment of cancer with overexpression of glycoprotein P (Pgp, ABCB1) as a reason for chemotherapy failure. A series of 14 novel 5-arylideneimidazolone derivatives containing the morpholine moiety, with respect to two different topologies (groups A and B), were designed and obtained in a three- or four-step synthesis, involving the Dimroth rearrangement. The new compounds were tested for their inhibition of the ABCB1 efflux pump in both sensitive (parental (PAR)) and ABCB1-overexpressing (MDR) T-lymphoma cancer cells in a rhodamine 123 accumulation assay. Their cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects were investigated by a thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. For active compounds, an insight into the mechanisms of action using either the luminescent Pgp-Glo™ Assay in vitro or docking studies to human Pgp was performed. The safety profile in vitro was examined. Structure–activity relationship (SAR) analysis was discussed. The most active compounds, representing both 2-substituted- (11) and Dimroth-rearranged 3-substituted (18) imidazolone topologies, displayed 1.38–1.46 fold stronger efflux pump inhibiting effects than reference verapamil and were significantly safer than doxorubicin in cell-based toxicity assays in the HEK-293 cell line. Results of mechanistic studies indicate that active imidazolones are substrates with increasing Pgp ATPase activity, and their dye-efflux inhibition via competitive action on the Pgp verapamil binding site was predicted in silico
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