1,511 research outputs found

    Status of the CMS Phase I Pixel Detector Upgrade

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    A new pixel detector for the CMS experiment is being built, owing to the instantaneous luminosities anticipated for the Phase I Upgrade of the LHC. The new CMS pixel detector provides four-hit tracking while featuring a significantly reduced material budget as well as new cooling and powering schemes. A new front-end readout chip mitigates buffering and bandwidth limitations, and comprises a low-threshold comparator. These improvements allow the new pixel detector to sustain and improve the efficiency of the current pixel tracker at the increased requirements imposed by high luminosities and pile-up. This contribution gives an overview of the design of the upgraded pixel detector and the status of the upgrade project, and presents test beam performance measurements of the production read-out chip.Comment: Presented at the 10th International "Hiroshima" Symposium on the Development and Application of Semiconductor Tracking Detectors, Xi'an, Chin

    Allpix2^2 -- Silicon Detector Monte Carlo Simulations for Particle Physics and Beyond

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    Allpix2^2 is a versatile, open-source simulation framework for silicon pixel detectors. Its goal is to ease the implementation of detailed simulations for both single sensors and more complex setups with multiple detectors. While originally created for silicon detectors in high-energy physics, it is capable of simulating a wide range of detector types for various application scenarios, through its interface to Geant4 to describe the interaction of particles with matter, and the different algorithms for charge transport and digitization. The simulation chain is arranged with the help of intuitive configuration files and an extensible system of modules, which implement the individual simulation steps. Detailed electric field maps imported from TCAD simulations can be used to precisely model the drift behavior of the charge carriers, bringing a new level of realism to the Monte Carlo simulation of particle detectors. Recently, Allpix2^2 has seen major improvements to its core framework to take full advantage of multi- and many-core processor architectures for simulating events fully parallel. Furthermore, new physics models such as charge carrier recombination in silicon have been introduced, further extending the application range. This contribution provides an overview of the framework and its components, highlighting the versatility and recent developments.Comment: 7 page

    Combining TCAD and Monte Carlo Methods to Simulate CMOS Pixel Sensors with a Small Collection Electrode using the Allpix Squared Framework

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    Combining electrostatic field simulations with Monte Carlo methods enables realistic modeling of the detector response for novel monolithic silicon detectors with strongly non-linear electric fields. Both the precise field description and the inclusion of Landau fluctuations and production of secondary particles in the sensor are crucial ingredients for the understanding and reproduction of detector characteristics. In this paper, a CMOS pixel sensor with small collection electrode design, implemented in a high-resistivity epitaxial layer, is simulated by integrating a detailed electric field model from finite element TCAD into a Monte Carlo based simulation with the Allpix2^2 framework. The simulation results are compared to data recorded in test-beam measurements and very good agreement is found for various quantities such as cluster size, spatial resolution and efficiency. Furthermore, the observables are studied as a function of the intra-pixel incidence position to enable a detailed comparison with the detector behavior observed in data. The validation of such simulations is fundamental for modeling the detector response and for predicting the performance of future prototype designs. Moreover, visualization plots extracted from the charge carrier drift model of the framework can aid in understanding the charge propagation behavior in different regions of the sensor.Comment: 15 pages, 18 figure

    Time Resolution Studies with Timepix3 Assemblies with Thin Silicon Pixel Sensors

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    Timepix3 is a multi-purpose readout ASIC for hybrid pixel detectors. It can measure time and energy simultaneously by employing time-of-arrival (ToA) and time-over-threshold (ToT) techniques. Both methods are systematically affected by timewalk. In this paper, a method for pixel-by-pixel calibration of the time response is presented. Assemblies of Timepix3 ASICs bump-bonded to thin planar silicon pixel sensors of different thicknesses between 50 um and 150 um are calibrated and characterised in particle beams. For minimum ionising particles, time resolutions down to 0.72 ±\pm 0.04 ns are achieved.Comment: preprint submitted to JINST, revision

    Comparison of small collection electrode CMOS pixel sensors with partial and full lateral depletion of the high-resistivity epitaxial layer

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    Large area silicon pixel trackers are currently under development for the High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC detectors. They are also foreseen for the detectors proposed for the future high energy Compact Linear Collider CLIC. For the CLIC tracker a single hit resolution of 7 ÎŒm, a timing resolution of a few nanoseconds and a material budget of 1–2 % of radiation length per detection layer are required. Integrated CMOS technologies are promising candidates to reduce the cost, facilitate the production and to achieve a low material budget. CMOS sensors with a small size of the collection electrode benefit from a small sensor capacitance, resulting in a large signal to noise ratio and a low power consumption. The Investigator is a test-chip developed for the ALICE Inner Tracking System upgrade, implemented in a 180 nm CMOS process with a small collection electrode on a high resistivity epitaxial layer. The Investigator has been produced in different process variants: the standard process and a modified process, where an additional N-layer has been inserted to obtain full lateral depletion. This paper presents a comparison of test-beam results for both process variants, focuses on spatial and timing resolution as well as efficiency measurements

    Transient Monte Carlo Simulations for the Optimisation and Characterisation of Monolithic Silicon Sensors

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    An ever-increasing demand for high-performance silicon sensors requires complex sensor designs that are challenging to simulate and model. The combination of electrostatic finite element simulations with a transient Monte Carlo approach provides simultaneous access to precise sensor modelling and high statistics. The high simulation statistics enable the inclusion of Landau fluctuations and production of secondary particles, which offers a realistic simulation scenario. The transient simulation approach is an important tool to achieve an accurate time-resolved description of the sensor, which is crucial in the face of novel detector prototypes with increasingly precise timing capabilities. The simulated time resolution as a function of operating parameters as well as the full transient pulse can be monitored and assessed, which offers a new perspective on the optimisation and characterisation of silicon sensors. In this paper, a combination of electrostatic finite-element simulations using 3D TCAD and transient Monte Carlo simulations with the Allpix Squared framework are presented for a monolithic CMOS pixel sensor with a small collection diode, that is characterised by a highly inhomogeneous, complex electric field. The results are compared to transient 3D TCAD simulations that offer a precise simulation of the transient behaviour but long computation times. Additionally, the simulations are benchmarked against test-beam data and good agreement is found for the performance parameters over a wide range of different operation conditions

    Developing a Monolithic Silicon Sensor in a 65 nm CMOS Imaging Technology for Future Lepton Collider Vertex Detectors

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    Monolithic CMOS sensors in a 65 nm imaging technology are being investigated by the CERN EP Strategic R&D Programme on Technologies for Future Experiments for an application in particle physics. The appeal of monolithic detectors lies in the fact that both sensor volume and readout electronics are integrated in the same silicon wafer, providing a reduction in production effort, costs and scattering material. The Tangerine Project WP1 at DESY participates in the Strategic R&D Programme and is focused on the development of a monolithic active pixel sensor with a time and spatial resolution compatible with the requirements for a future lepton collider vertex detector. By fulfilling these requirements, the Tangerine detector is suitable as well to be used as telescope planes for the DESY-II Test Beam facility. The project comprises all aspects of sensor development, from the electronics engineering and the sensor design using simulations, to laboratory and test beam investigations of prototypes. Generic TCAD Device and Monte-Carlo simulations are used to establish an understanding of the technology and provide important insight into performance parameters of the sensor. Testing prototypes in laboratory and test beam facilities allows for the characterization of their response to different conditions. By combining results from all these studies it is possible to optimize the sensor layout. This contribution presents results from generic TCAD and Monte-Carlo simulations, and measurements performed with test chips of the first sensor submission.Comment: 7 pages, 8 figures, submitted to IEEE Xplore as conference record for 2022 IEEE NSS/MIC/RTS

    Top-quark physics at the CLIC electron-positron linear collider

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    ABSTRACT: The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a proposed future high-luminosity linear electron-positron collider operating at three energy stages, with nominal centre-of-mass energies √s = 380 GeV, 1.5 TeV, and 3 TeV. Its aim is to explore the energy frontier, providing sensitivity to physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM) and precision measurements of Standard Model processes with an emphasis on Higgs boson and top-quark physics. The opportunities for top-quark physics at CLIC are discussed in this paper. The initial stage of operation focuses on top-quark pair production measurements, as well as the search for rare flavour-changing neutral current (FCNC) top-quark decays. It also includes a top-quark pair production threshold scan around 350 GeV which provides a precise measurement of the top-quark mass in a well-defined theoretical framework. At the higher-energy stages, studies are made of top-quark pairs produced in association with other particles. A study of t̄tH production including the extraction of the top Yukawa coupling is presented as well as a study of vector boson fusion (VBF) production, which gives direct access to high-energy electroweak interactions. Operation above 1 TeV leads to more highly collimated jet environments where dedicated methods are used to analyse the jet constituents. These techniques enable studies of the top-quark pair production, and hence the sensitivity to BSM physics, to be extended to higher energies. This paper also includes phenomenological interpretations that may be performed using the results from the extensive top-quark physics programme at CLIC.the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness under projects MINEICO/FEDER-UE, FPA2015-65652-C4-3-R, FPA2015-71292-C2-1-Pand FPA2015-71956-REDT; and the MECD grant FPA2016-78645-P, Spai