10,699 research outputs found

    Stabilization of quantum metastable states by dissipation

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    Normally, quantum fluctuations enhance the escape from metastable states in the presence of dissipation. Here we show that dissipation can enhance the stability of a quantum metastable system, consisting of a particle moving in a strongly asymmetric double well potential, interacting with a thermal bath. We find that the escape time from the metastable state has a nonmonotonic behavior versus the system-bath coupling and the temperature, producing a stabilizing effect.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, submitted to Phys. Rev.

    Testing For Financial Contagion Between Developed And Emerging Markets During The 1997 East Asian Crisis

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    In this paper we examine whether during the 1997 East Asian crisis there was any contagion from the four largest economies in the region (Thailand, Indonesia, Korea and Malaysia) to a number of developed countries (Japan, UK, Germany and France). Following Forbes and Rigobon (2002), we test for contagion as a significant positive shift in the correlation between asset returns, taking into account heteroscedasticity and endogeneity bias. Furthermore, we improve on earlier empirical studies by carrying out a full sample test of the stability of the system that relies on more plausible (over)identifying restrictions. The estimation results provide some evidence of contagion, in particular from Japan (the major international lender in the region), which drastically cut its credit lines to the other Asian countries in 1997

    Update Measurement of the b Baryon Lifetime

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    The lifetime of the b baryons has been measured by the ALEPH detector using two independent data samples. From a maximum likelihood fit to the impact parameter distribution of leptons in Λℓ−\Lambda\ell^- combinations, the b baryon lifetime is measured. The lifetime of the Λb0\Lambda_{b}^{0} baryon is measured from a maximum likelihood fit to the proper time distribution of Λc+ℓ−\Lambda_{c}^+\ell^- candidates

    Fluctuating noise drives Brownian transport

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    The transport properties of Brownian ratchet was studied in the presence of stochastic intensity noise (SIN) in both overdamped and underdamped regimes. In the overdamped case, analytical solution using the matrix continued fraction method revealed the existence of a maximum current when the noise intensity fluctuates on intermediate time scale regions. Similar effects were observed for the underdamped case by Monte Carlo simulations. The optimal time-correlation for the Brownian transport coincided with the experimentally observed time-correlation of the extrinsic noise in Esherichia coli gene expression and implied the importance of environmental noise for molecular mechanisms.Comment: 22 pages, 8 figure

    Thermal modeling of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers: comparison of optical waveguides

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    We compare a set of experimental lattice temperature profiles measured in a surface-emitting terahertz (THz) quantum-cascade laser (QCL) with the results of a 2-D anisotropic heat diffusion model. We evaluate the temperature dependence of the cross-plane thermal conductivity (kappaperp) of the active region which is known to be strongly anisotropic due to its superlattice-like nature. Knowledge of kappaperp and its temperature dependence is crucial in order to improve the temperature performance of THz QCLs and this has been used to investigate the longitudinal lattice temperature distribution of the active region and to compare the thermal properties of metal-metal and semi-insulating surface-plasmon THz optical waveguides using a 3-D anisotropic heat diffusion model

    Mean Escape Time in a System with Stochastic Volatility

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    We study the mean escape time in a market model with stochastic volatility. The process followed by the volatility is the Cox Ingersoll and Ross process which is widely used to model stock price fluctuations. The market model can be considered as a generalization of the Heston model, where the geometric Brownian motion is replaced by a random walk in the presence of a cubic nonlinearity. We investigate the statistical properties of the escape time of the returns, from a given interval, as a function of the three parameters of the model. We find that the noise can have a stabilizing effect on the system, as long as the global noise is not too high with respect to the effective potential barrier experienced by a fictitious Brownian particle. We compare the probability density function of the return escape times of the model with those obtained from real market data. We find that they fit very well.Comment: 9 pages, 9 figures, to be published in Phys. Rev.

    Updated Measurement of the b baryon lifetime

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    sing about 4 million hadronic Z decays recorded with the Aleph detector, the lifetime of the b baryons has been measured using two independent data samples. From a maximum likelihood fit to the impact parameter distribution of leptons in 1085 Lambda-lepton combinations containing a b baryon sample of 719 decays the measured b baryon lifetime is \tau = 1.18 \pm 0.08(stat) \pm 0.07 (syst) ps The lifetime of the Lambda_b baryon from a maximum likelihood fit to the proper time distribution of 193 Lambda_c-lepton candidates is \tau_{\Lambda_b} = 1.21^{+0.13}_{-0.12}{stat}) \pm 0.04 {syst} ps. The combined result of the two measurements yields an averaged value \tau_{\Lambda_b} = 1.19 \pm{0.0

    Casimir-Polder interatomic potential between two atoms at finite temperature and in the presence of boundary conditions

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    We evaluate the Casimir-Polder potential between two atoms in the presence of an infinite perfectly conducting plate and at nonzero temperature. In order to calculate the potential, we use a method based on equal-time spatial correlations of the electric field, already used to evaluate the effect of boundary conditions on interatomic potentials. This method gives also a transparent physical picture of the role of a finite temperature and boundary conditions on the Casimir-Polder potential. We obtain an analytical expression of the potential both in the near and far zones, and consider several limiting cases of interest, according to the values of the parameters involved, such as atom-atom distance, atoms-wall distance and temperature.Comment: 11 page

    Anomalous lack of decoherence of the Macroscopic Quantum Superpositions based on phase-covariant Quantum Cloning

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    We show that all Macroscopic Quantum Superpositions (MQS) based on phase-covariant quantum cloning are characterized by an anomalous high resilence to the de-coherence processes. The analysis supports the results of recent MQS experiments and leads to conceive a useful conjecture regarding the realization of complex decoherence - free structures for quantum information, such as the quantum computer.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure

    The problem of analytical calculation of barrier crossing characteristics for Levy flights

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    By using the backward fractional Fokker-Planck equation we investigate the barrier crossing event in the presence of Levy noise. After shortly review recent results obtained with different approaches on the time characteristics of the barrier crossing, we derive a general differential equation useful to calculate the nonlinear relaxation time. We obtain analytically the nonlinear relaxation time for free Levy flights and a closed expression in quadrature of the same characteristics for cubic potential.Comment: 12 pages, 2 figures, presented at 5th International Conference on Unsolved Problems on Noise, Lyon, France, 2008, to appear in J. Stat. Mech.: Theory and Experimen
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