60 research outputs found

    Proximal perineal urethrostomy technique for treatment of urethral stricture in a Vietnamese pot-bellied pig

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    Urinary tract obstruction in pigs can be seen with anatomical abnormalities or as a complication following castration. The surgical techniques described in the pig are few and consist of prepubic urethrostomy, extrapelvic urethral or urethropreputial anastomosis. These techniques are complex and not free from complications. Aim of the study was to describe the technique used to perform a proximal perineal urethrostomy in a Vietnamese potbellied pig. A Vietnamese pot-bellied pig with urinary obstruction was referred for complications after prepubic cystostomy. Endoscopy showed a stricture at the junction of the membranous and penile portions of the urethra. A perineal urethrostomy was performed. Seven days later the cystostomy was closed. No complication was reported during the procedure and after surgery, with the exception of urine induced dermatitis. Perineal urethrostomy is an effective technique as an alternative to prepubic urethrostomy and extrapelvic urethral anastomosis for the treatment of urethral obstruction in Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs

    Equine Bone Marrow and Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Cytofluorimetric Characterization, In Vitro Differentiation, and Clinical Application

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    The aim of the present work was to isolate, cultivate, differentiate, and conduct cellular characterization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from equine adipose tissue (eAT) and bone marrow (eBM). Isolated and characterized cells were used in racehorses suffering from a superficial flexor tendon injury. Equine adipose tissue collection was performed at the base of the horse tail, whereas eBM was aspirated from iliac crest. Mononuclear cell fraction was isolated and cultured. In vitro differentiation and molecular characterization at P3 of culture were performed. No statistically significant differences in the number of cell doublings were found among different culture passages (P > .05). Doubling time was greater for eBM than eAT (3.2 1.5 vs. 1.3 0.7; P < .05). Positive von Kossa and Alizarin Red staining confirmed osteogenesis. Alcian Blue and Oil Red O staining illustrated chondrogenesis and adipogenesis, respectively. Isolated cells resulted positive for CD90, CD44, and CD105, whereas negative for hematopoietic markers, CD14, CD45, and CD34. Using isolated cells for injured tendon therapy, no adverse reactions were observed, and all inoculated horses returned to race competitions. In vitro results revealed the immunophenotypic characterization of isolated cells similar to that observed in human MSCs from the same sources; furthermore, in the present study, their clinical use proves the safety of eBM-derived and eAT-derived MSCs and a successful outcome for the treated animals that returned to their previous level of sport activity


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    Introduction: this clinical research investigates whether rigorous and aggressive surgical debridement of white line disease (WLD) lesions in 236 lame cows, in association with a medicated bandage, would promote clinical healing (as evidenced by coverage of the lesion with new horn) with subsequent improvement in milk production. Materials and methods: after claw trimming, wall and sole horn were removed and the horn rim trimmed around and inside the lesion using a hoof knife, until abundant bleeding was present. The wound was then rinsed, covered with a topical antibiotic and bandaged. Results: out of the initial 236 lame cows, on day two 40 cows were not lame anymore and 196 cows showed a score of 2 out of 5. On day 18, two cows had a grade 4 lameness, with the lesions being smaller but not completely healed. On days 30 and 40, none of the remaining 234 cows developed recurrence of pathology or lameness. At day 60, lesions were completely healed. Discussion: this aggressive surgical treatment allows milk production not to decrease comparing to the control group and can be easily implemented in practice. Conclusions: Since bovine claw lesions represent one of the main problems in dairy cattles, this surgical technique could be suggested as a valid option for the treatment of WLD in cows

    Pharmacokinetic profile and partitioning in red blood cells of romifidine after single intravenous administration in the horse

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    The aims of this study were to assess the plasma concentrations of romifidine in horses after intravenous injection, to evaluate the red blood cell (RBC) partitioning of the anaesthetic drug, and to improve knowledge regarding its sedative effect in horses describing the pharmacokinetic model. Eight adult Standardbred horses received a single bolus of romifidine at a dosage of 100\ua0\u3bcg/kg. Blood samples (5\ua0mL) were collected immediately before romifidine administration (t0), and at 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 150 and 180\ua0min after injection. A sedation score was recorded at the same time. The romifidine concentrations in plasma and red blood cells were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The plasma and red blood cell concentrations were correlated with the sedation at each time point. Romifidine produced a satisfactory level of sedation in all animals. The sedation was detectable in all horses for up to 105\ua0min. All the animals returned to normal without any behavioural changes at 180\ua0min. The romifidine concentrations in the red blood cells were significantly higher (P\ua0<\ua00.01) at all time points than those in the plasma. The T1/2\u3b2 was 148.67\ua0\ub1\ua061.59\ua0min and body clearance was 22.55\ua0\ub1\ua06.67\ua0mL/kg per min. The results showed that after a single bolus administration of romifidine, a partitioning in the RBCs was detected

    Evaluation of Protein Carbonyl Content in Healthy and Sick Hospitalized Horses

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    Literature on the protein carbonyl content (PCC) evaluation in horses is scarce, thus the aims were to evaluate the PCC in healthy and SIRS (Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome) horses and to investigate the performances of PCC in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio in identifying SIRS positive and negative horses. A total of 72 adult horses were included. All the horses underwent to a complete physical examination, blood analysis, and were evaluated for the SIRS status. Blood samples were collected once in healthy horses and at admission time, then 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after admission in sick animals. PCC was evaluated using amethod previously described. Data were statistically analyzed to verify differences in PCC between healthy vs. SIRS positive or SIRS negative horses at all sampling time. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed to verify sensitivity and specificity of PCC in the diagnosis of SIRS-positive and SIRS negative horses. The healthy horses were standardbred mares with a median age of 8.5 years. The sick horses were 31/54 females, 16/54 geldings, and 7/54 stallions of different breeds and with a median age of 12 years old. Eight out of 54 sick horses were SIRS negative, while 46/54 were SIRS positive. Statistically significant differences were obtained between healthy and SIRS positive horses, while no differences were observed between healthy and SIRS negative horses at any sampling time. The best cutoff value of PCC to discriminate between SIRS positive, SIRS negative, and healthy horses, the sensitivity and specificity of cutoff point, the area under receiver operating characteristic curve, the 95%confidence intervals, and the likelihood ratio were reported. We found higher PCC values in sick SIRS-positive horses vs. healthy ones with a decrement over time, while no differences at admission, nor during the observational period, were obtained in sick but SIRS-negative horses. The value of 0.049 nmol/ml/mg is reported as a potential cutoff for the diagnosis of SIRS positivity vs. healthy horses with a sensibility of 74.5% and a specificity of 72.2%. In conclusion, PCC seems to be a sensitive and specific marker for SIRS in horses

    Lidocaine constant rate infusion in isoflurane anesthetized neonatal foals

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    IntroductionIn horses, lidocaine infusion is administered intraoperatively for analgesia and for a reduction of inhalant anaesthetic requirement. The objective of the study was to describe the anaesthetic effects of lidocaine infusion in isoflurane anaesthetised foals.MethodsTwelve foals (&lt;3 weeks old) undergoing surgery were included in the study (LIDO group). Foals were premedicated with midazolam and butorphanol IV, anaesthesia was induced with ketamine and propofol IV and maintained with isoflurane. Lidocaine was administered intraoperatively at 0.05 mg/kg/min. Also, the anaesthetic records of 11 foals in which lidocaine was not administered intraoperatively were retrospectively evaluated and they were considered as a historical control group (HC). Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and fraction of expired isoflurane were monitored continuously. Time of extubation, time to reach sternal recumbency and standing were recorded. The quality of recovery was assessed.ResultsHR decreased in both groups compared with baseline values and intraoperatively the differences were statistically significant (p = 0.01 and p = 0.03 respectively in the LIDO and HC groups). Intraoperatively the HR was significantly lower in the LIDO group (71.2 ± 13.4 bpm) compared with the HC group (87.1 ± 17.7 bpm) (p = 0.0236). The number of foals requiring inotropic support (LIDO n = 7 and HC n = 9) was not statistically associated with the treatment group (p = 0.371). The extubation time, the time to reach the sternal recumbency and the quality of recovery did not differ significantly between the two groups (p = 0.7 and p = 0.6 respectively).DiscussionIn conclusion, in anaesthetised foals the addition of lidocaine does not provide a sparing effect on isoflurane requirement, and it does not interfere with the quality of recovery, however it decreases significantly the HR, which is pivotal in foals for the maintenance of cardiac output and peripheral perfusion. Therefore, a continuous patient monitoring is essential

    An atypical case of respiratory actinobacillosis in a cow

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    A not pregnant 4-year-old Jersey cow was presented with the sudden appearance of respiratory noise, nasal discharge and moderate respiratory difficulty. Upon physical examination a snoring-like noise, extended head and neck position, exaggerated abdominal effort, bilateral nasal discharge and left prescapular lymph node enlargement were noted. Sub-occlusion of the initial portion of the respiratory tract was suspected. Radiographic and endoscopic examinations revealed a pedunculate mass on the dorsal aspect of the rhinopharynx, which was removed with endoscopically assisted electrosurgery. Histologic examination revealed a chronic pyogranulomatous inflammation with eosinophilic club-like bodies surrounding small colonies of rod-shaped bacteria. Results of histochemical staining were consistent with Actinobacillus-like bacteria and a diagnosis of respiratory actinobacillosis was reached. Surgery and antibiotic therapy were resolutive, as demonstated by an endoscopic check at the second month after surgery, even without the association of the traditional iodine cure, which is regarded as the treatment of choice for actinobacillosis

    Clinical findings, rhinoscopy and histological evaluation of 54 dogs with chronic nasal disease

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    Nasal diseases are very common in dogs and rhinoscopy is often required for a definitive diagnosis. Rhinoscopy, while superficial in nature, can guide the clinician to the final diagnosis. In this study, rhinoscopy was performed on 54 dogs with symptoms of chronic nasopharyngeal disease. The endoscopic diagnosis of neoplasia or chronic nasal inflammation was validated with histological examination of pathological samples, in order to evaluate the degree of concordance between endoscopic findings and histological diagnosis. The agreement between endoscopy and histology was tested by application of Cohen's kappa coefficient. We conclude that correlation between endoscopic results and histological diagnosis, expressed by a Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.73, is only possible with a constant cooperation between the clinician and the pathologist

    Anxiety and depression in keratotic oral lichen planus: a multicentric study from the SIPMO

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    Objectives: Oral lichen planus with exclusive keratotic reticular, papular, and/or plaque-like lesions (K-OLP) is a clinical pattern of OLP that may be associated with a complex symptomatology and psychological alteration. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of anxiety (A) and depression (D) in patients with K-OLP, analyzing the potential predictors which can affect mental health status. Methods: Three hundred K-OLP patients versus 300 healthy controls (HC) were recruited in 15 Italian universities. The Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Total Pain Rating Index (T-PRI), and Hamilton Rating Scales for Depression and for Anxiety (HAM-D and HAM-A) were administered. Results: The K-OLP patients showed statistically higher scores in the NRS, T-PRI, HAM-D, and HAM-A compared with the HC (p-value < 0.001**). A and D were found in 158 (52.7%) and 148 (49.3%) K-OLP patients. Strong linear correlations were identified between HAM-A, HAM-D, NRS, T-PRI, and employment status and between HAM-D, HAM-A, NRS, T-PRI, employment status, and female gender. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that HAM-D and HAM-A showed the greatest increase in the R2 value for A and D in the K-OLP patients, respectively (DR2 = 55.5% p-value < 0.001**; DR2 = 56.5% p-value < 0.001**). Conclusions: The prevalence of A and D is higher in the K-OLP patients compared with the HC, also found in K-OLP subjects without pain, suggesting that the processing of pain may be in a certain way independent of the processing of mood. Clinical relevance: Mood disorders and pain assessment should be carefully performed in relation to K-OLP to obtain a complete analysis of the patients
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