325 research outputs found

    Large-scale pharmacogenomic study of sulfonylureas and the QT, JT and QRS intervals: CHARGE Pharmacogenomics Working Group

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    Sulfonylureas, a commonly used class of medication used to treat type 2 diabetes, have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Their effects on QT interval duration and related electrocardiographic phenotypes are potential mechanisms for this adverse effect. In 11 ethnically diverse cohorts that included 71 857 European, African-American and Hispanic/Latino ancestry individuals with repeated measures of medication use and electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements, we conducted a pharmacogenomic genome-wide association study of sulfonylurea use and three ECG phenotypes: QT, JT and QRS intervals. In ancestry-specific meta-analyses, eight novel pharmacogenomic loci met the threshold for genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10−8), and a pharmacokinetic variant in CYP2C9 (rs1057910) that has been associated with sulfonylurea-related treatment effects and other adverse drug reactions in previous studies was replicated. Additional research is needed to replicate the novel findings and to understand their biological basis

    GWAS for discovery and replication of genetic loci associated with sudden cardiac arrest in patients with coronary artery disease

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Epidemiologic evidence suggests a heritable component to risk for sudden cardiac arrest independent of risk for myocardial infarction. Recent candidate gene association studies for community sudden cardiac arrests have focused on a limited number of biological pathways and yielded conflicting results. We sought to identify novel gene associations for sudden cardiac arrest in patients with coronary artery disease by performing a genome-wide association study.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Tagging SNPs (n = 338,328) spanning the genome were typed in a case-control study comparing 89 patients with coronary artery disease and sudden cardiac arrest due to ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation to 520 healthy controls.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Fourteen SNPs including 7 SNPs among 7 genes (ACYP2, AP1G2, ESR1, DGES2, GRIA1, KCTD1, ZNF385B) were associated with sudden cardiac arrest (all p < 1.30 × 10<sup>-7</sup>), following Bonferroni correction and adjustment for population substructure, age, and sex; genetic variation in ESR1 (p = 2.62 × 10<sup>-8</sup>; Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.277, 1.596) has previously been established as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In tandem, the role of 9 genes for monogenic long QT syndrome (LQT1-9) was assessed, yielding evidence of association with CACNA1C (LQT8; p = 3.09 × 10<sup>-4</sup>; OR = 1.18, 95% CI:1.079, 1.290). We also assessed 4 recently published gene associations for sudden cardiac arrest, validating NOS1AP (p = 4.50 × 10<sup>-2</sup>, OR = 1.15, 95% CI:1.003, 1.326), CSMD2 (p = 6.6 × 10<sup>-3</sup>, OR = 2.27, 95% CI:1.681, 2.859), and AGTR1 (p = 3.00 × 10<sup>-3</sup>, OR = 1.13, 95% CI:1.042, 1.215).</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>We demonstrate 11 gene associations for sudden cardiac arrest due to ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation in patients with coronary artery disease. Validation studies in independent cohorts and functional studies are required to confirm these associations.</p

    Effect of sex and underlying disease on the genetic association of QT interval and sudden cardiac death

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    Background Sudden cardiac death (SCD) accounts for ≈300 000 deaths annually in the United States. Men have a higher risk of SCD and are more likely to have underlying coronary artery disease, while women are more likely to have arrhythmic events in the setting of inherited or acquired QT prolongation. Moreover, there is evidence of sex differences in the genetics of QT interval duration. Using sex‐ and coronary artery disease–stratified analyses, we assess differences in genetic association between longer QT interval and SCD risk. Methods and Results We examined 2282 SCD subjects and 3561 Finnish controls. The SCD subjects were stratified by underlying disease (ischemic versus nonischemic) and by sex. We used logistic regression to test for association between the top QT interval–associated single‐nucleotide polymorphism, rs12143842 (in the NOS1AP locus), and SCD risk. We also performed Mendelian randomization to test for causal association of QT interval in the various subgroups. No statistically significant differences were observed between the sexes for associations with rs12143842, despite the odds ratio being higher in females across all subgroup analyses. Consistent with our hypothesis, female non‐ischemics had the highest odds ratio point estimate for association between rs12143842 and SCD risk and male ischemics the lowest odds ratio point estimate (P=0.036 for difference). Similar trends were observed for the Mendelian randomization analysis. Conclusions While individual subgroup comparisons did not achieve traditional criteria for statistical significance, this study is consistent with the hypothesis that the causal association of longer QT interval on SCD risk is stronger in women and nonischemic individuals

    ‘Maintaining balance and harmony’: Javanese perceptions of health and cardiovascular disease

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    Community intervention programmes to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors within urban communities in developing countries are rare. One possible explanation is the difficulty of designing an intervention that corresponds to the local context and culture

    Electrocardiographic and clinical predictors separating atherosclerotic sudden cardiac death from incident coronary heart disease

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    To identify specific ECG and clinical predictors that separate atherosclerotic sudden cardiac death (SCD) from incident coronary heart disease (CHD) (non-fatal events and non-sudden death) in the combined cohorts of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study and the Cardiovascular Health Study

    Genetic association study of QT interval highlights role for calcium signaling pathways in myocardial repolarization.

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    The QT interval, an electrocardiographic measure reflecting myocardial repolarization, is a heritable trait. QT prolongation is a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD) and could indicate the presence of the potentially lethal mendelian long-QT syndrome (LQTS). Using a genome-wide association and replication study in up to 100,000 individuals, we identified 35 common variant loci associated with QT interval that collectively explain ∌8-10% of QT-interval variation and highlight the importance of calcium regulation in myocardial repolarization. Rare variant analysis of 6 new QT interval-associated loci in 298 unrelated probands with LQTS identified coding variants not found in controls but of uncertain causality and therefore requiring validation. Several newly identified loci encode proteins that physically interact with other recognized repolarization proteins. Our integration of common variant association, expression and orthogonal protein-protein interaction screens provides new insights into cardiac electrophysiology and identifies new candidate genes for ventricular arrhythmias, LQTS and SCD

    Hemostasis, Inflammation, and Fatal and Nonfatal Coronary Heart Disease: Long-Term Follow-Up of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Cohort

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    This study examines the hypothesis that chronic inflammation is associated with a higher risk of cardiac death compared to the risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction