307 research outputs found

    CD9 Tetraspanin: A New Pathway for the Regulation of Inflammation?

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    CD9 belongs to the tetraspanin superfamily. Depending on the cell type and associated molecules, CD9 has a wide variety of biological activities such as cell adhesion, motility, metastasis, growth, signal transduction, differentiation, and sperm–egg fusion. This review focuses on CD9 expression by hematopoietic cells and its role in modulating cellular processes involved in the regulation of inflammation. CD9 is functionally very important in many diseases and is involved either in the regulation or in the mediation of the disease. The role of CD9 in various diseases, such as viral and bacterial infections, cancer and chronic lung allograft dysfunction, is discussed. This review focuses also on its interest as a biomarker in diseases. Indeed CD9 is primarily known as a specific exosome marker however, its expression is now recognized as an anti-inflammatory marker of monocytes and macrophages. It was also described as a marker of murine IL-10-competent Breg cells and IL-10-secreting CD9+ B cells were associated with better allograft outcome in lung transplant patients, and identified as a new predictive biomarker of long-term survival. In the field of cancer, CD9 was both identified as a favorable prognostic marker or as a predictor of metastatic potential depending on cancer types. Finally, this review discusses strategies to target CD9 as a therapeutic tool. Because CD9 can have opposite effects depending on the situation, the environment and the pathology, modulating CD9 expression or blocking its effects seem to be a new promising therapeutic strategy

    Entrepreneuriat Social et Participation Citoyenne

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    ABSTRACT Social entrepreneurship is an emerging concept, notably in administrative sciences. However, not only is it a specific managerial practice but it is also a type of citizen participation that is not well-known. The objective of this article, based on a literature review and a theoretical approach, is to present the concept of social entrepreneurship in order to better understand its relation to citizen participation. Social entrepreneurship represents a specific type of citizen participation involving actions. Social enterprises act daily to transform the social landscape. More specifically, this article presents the context of development of social entrepreneurship, proposes a definition of the concept and of other connected notions like "social enterprise" and "social entrepreneur", and, finally, analyzes the contribution of social entrepreneurship to citizen participation. It shows that social entrepreneurship is a way for citizens to act directly and with some power on society.  RÉSUMÉ L'entrepreneuriat social est un concept émergeant, notamment dans les sciences de l'administration. Pourtant, en dehors d'une pratique directoriale spécifique, il est aussi une forme de participation citoyenne trop méconnue. L'objectif de cet article, basé sur une revue de la littérature et une approche théorique, est de présenter le concept d'entrepreneuriat social afin de mieux saisir son positionnement par rapport à la participation citoyenne. L'entrepreneuriat social constitue une forme particulière de participation à l'espace public par l'action, les entreprises sociales agissant au quotidien pour transformer le paysage social. En particulier, cet article souligne le contexte de développement de l'entrepreneuriat social, définit le concept et les notions connexes d'entreprise sociale et d'entrepreneur social, et, enfin, présente une réflexion sur la contribution de l'entrepreneuriat social à la participation citoyenne. L'article montre que l'entrepreneuriat social est une façon pour les citoyens d'agir directement et avec maîtrise sur la société.

    The EKiTE network (epidemiology in kidney transplantation - a European validated database): an initiative epidemiological and translational European collaborative research

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    Background: Kidney transplantation is considered to be the treatment of choice for people with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, due to the shortage of available organs and the increase in the ESRD prevalence in Europe, it is essential to improve transplantation outcomes by studying the related prognostic factors. Today, there is no European registry collecting data to perform such clinical epidemiology studies. Main body: Entitled EKiTE, for European cohort for Kidney Transplantation Epidemiology, this prospective and multicentric cohort includes patients from Spanish (Barcelona), Belgian (Leuven), Norwegian (Oslo) and French (Paris Necker, Lyon, Nantes, Nancy, Montpellier, Nice and Paris Saint Louis) transplantation centers and currently contains 13, 394 adult recipients of kidney (only) transplantation from 2005 and updated annually. A large set of parameters collected from transplantation until graft failure or death with numbers of post-transplantation outcomes. The long-term follow-up and the collected data enable a wide range of possible survival and longitudinal analyses. Conclusion: EKiTE is a multicentric cohort aiming to better assess the natural history of the ESRD in European kidney transplant recipients and perform benchmarking of clinical practices. The data are available for clinical epidemiology studies and open for external investigators upon request to the scientific council. Short-term perspectives are to extend EKITE network to other European countries and collect additional parameters in respect of the common thesaurus

    CD9+ Regulatory B Cells Induce T Cell Apoptosis via IL-10 and Are Reduced in Severe Asthmatic Patients

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    CD9 was recently identified as a marker of murine IL-10-competent regulatory B cells. Functional impairments or defects in CD9+ IL-10-secreting regulatory B cells are associated with enhanced asthma-like inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. In mouse models, all asthma-related features can be abrogated by CD9+ B cell adoptive transfer. We aimed herein to decipher the profiles, features, and molecular mechanisms of the regulatory properties of CD9+ B cells in human and mouse. The profile of CD9+ B cells was analyzed using blood from severe asthmatic patients and normal and asthmatic mice by flow cytometry. The regulatory effects of mouse CD9+ B cells on effector T cell death, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and mitochondrial depolarization were determined using yellow dye, propidium iodide, Annexin V, and JC-1 staining. MAPK phosphorylation was analyzed by western blotting. Patients with severe asthma and asthmatic mice both harbored less CD19+CD9+ B cells, although these cells displayed no defect in their capacity to induce T cell apoptosis. Molecular mechanisms of regulation of CD9+ B cells characterized in mouse showed that they induced effector T cell cycle arrest in sub G0/G1, leading to apoptosis in an IL-10-dependent manner. This process occurred through MAPK phosphorylation and activation of both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. This study characterizes the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of CD9+ B cells to induce effector T cell apoptosis in mice and humans via IL-10 secretion. Defects in CD9+ B cells in blood from patients with severe asthma reveal new insights into the lack of regulation of inflammation in these patients

    Food allergy enhances allergic asthma in mice

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    BackgroundAtopic march refers to the typical transition from a food allergy in early childhood to allergic asthma in older children and adults. However the precise interplay of events involving gut, skin and pulmonary inflammation in this process is not completely understood.ObjectivesTo develop a mouse model of mixed food and respiratory allergy mimicking the atopic march and better understand the impact of food allergies on asthma.MethodsFood allergy to ovalbumin (OVA) was induced through intra-peritoneal sensitization and intra-gastric challenge, and/or a respiratory allergy to house dust mite (HDM) was obtained through percutaneous sensitization and intra-nasal challenges with dermatophagoides farinae (Der f) extract. Digestive, respiratory and systemic parameters were analyzed.ResultsOVA-mediated gut allergy was associated with an increase in jejunum permeability, and a worsening of Der f-induced asthma with stronger airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary cell infiltration, notably eosinophils. There was overproduction of the pro-eosinophil chemokine RANTES in broncho-alveolar lavages associated with an enhanced Th2 cytokine secretion and increased total and Der f-specific IgE when the two allergies were present. Both AHR and lung inflammation increased after a second pulmonary challenge.ConclusionGut sensitization to OVA amplifies Der f-induced asthma in mice
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