3,899 research outputs found

    Farm Diversification in Relation to Landscape Properties

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    Current European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has been moving from production support subsidies to direct decoupled income support. The emergence in policy making of the concept of multifunctional agriculture leads to the recognition that a farmer produces more than food: he produces jointly both commodity and non-commodity goods. Environmental contracts were developed in order to encourage the provision of non-commodity goods such as landscape or biodiversity. Next to these contracts, other activities as for example recreation can be observed. They are the result of farm diversification. The role of location in farmers’ decision making to diversify is pointed out in literature but geographical information is generally reduced to the location within a political delimitation unit the empirical work. Objective of this paper is two-fold. Firstly, it addresses the role of location, in term of site specific natural conditions as well as neighbouring emerging dynamics in farmer’s decision making to diversify. Attention is paid to number of activities as well as the specific types of activities, notably green services, daily recreation and other farm-linked services. Secondly, this paper introduces income from agriculture explicitly allowing testing short term price sensitivity. It was found that attractive landscape is a driver for diversification as these landscape offer more opportunities. Furthermore, diversification is responsive to price. Thirdly, role of density of past multifunctional activities in the neighborhood influences farm diversification: multifunctional activities create an externality effects as new activities emerge next to already existing ones. This dynamic may lead to the emergence of ‘multifunctional hotspots’ in landscape.Farmer diversification, landscape services, location, Farm Management, Land Economics/Use,

    African Land Ecology: Opportunities and Constraints for Agricultural Development

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    Current agriculture in Sub-Sahara Africa is undeveloped and the Green Revolution has left the continent largely untouched. Poor performance is often related to a number of socio-economic factors. In this paper we argue that there are also some specifities of natural resources, namely local homogeneity and spatial diversity of the pre-dominant Basement Complex soils, that imply that simple fertilizer strategies may not produce the yield increases obtained elsewhere. Keywords: Sub-Sahara Africa, Agro-Ecology, Land use, Land resources, Basement Complex, Green Revolution, Micronutrients, Fertilizer Policy

    Environmental monitoring in heterogeneous soil-landscapes; A Dutch case study

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    The spatial heterogeneity of agricultural soil-landscapes is mostly not taken into account in environmental policies. Most environmental goals have been defined at national level or farm level but not at the landscape level. The potential for setting up a regional environmental monitoring network that supports self governance was explored. The research was performed in the Northern Friesian Woodland

    Reversal of typical multidrug resistance by cyclosporin and its non-immunosuppressive analogue SDZ PSC 833 in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the mdr1 phenotype

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    Summary The new non-immunosuppressive cyclosporin derivative SDZ PSC 833 (PSC) is a potent agent used to overcome typical multidrug resistance (MDR) associated with overexpression of themdr1 gene encoding for a P-170 glycoprotein. In the present study, the efficacy of PSC as compared with cyclosporin was determined in Chinese hamster ovary cell lines exhibiting different levels of resistance to colchicine (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 10 ÎŒg/ml, respectively). Low concentrations of PSC (8.2nm) increased the cytotoxicity of colchicine in cell lines expressing low levels of drug resistance. The concentration resulting in 50% cell survival (LC50 value) found for colchicine alone or in combination with PSC in the CHO-A3 cell line that was resistant to 100 ng colchicine/ml decreased from >500 to 200 ng/ml at 8.2nm PSC and to 500 ng/ml for colchicine alone to 500 ng/ml for colchicine used in combination with 8.2nm PSC and to <100 ng/ml for colchicine combined with 82 or 820nm PSC. At a concentration of 82nm PSC, the maximal effect in MDR reversal was observed in the cell lines exhibiting moderate resistance. In the highly resistant cell line, PSC (820nm) also reversed colchicine resistance. In drug-accumulation experiments, we obtained a 4-fold increase in intracellular doxorubicin accumulation using 820nm PSC. A comparison of PSC with cyclosporin revealed that a cyclosporin concentration 20-fold that of PSC was required to obtain the same sensitising effect. On the basis of these data, it may be concluded that PSC is a most promising chemosensitiser

    Liver stiffness is associated with excess mortality in the general population driven by heart failure:The Rotterdam Study

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    Background: Elevated liver stiffness reflects hepatic fibrosis but can also be secondary to venous congestion. We aimed to study the association between liver stiffness and mortality in the general population, stratified for heart failure and/or coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods: We analysed individuals enrolled in the ongoing prospective population-based Rotterdam Study who attended a visit between 2009–2014 that included liver stiffness measurement. Exclusion criteria for the primary analysis were incomplete data on heart failure, unreliable liver stiffness, alcohol abuse and viral hepatitis, leaving 4.153 participants (aged 67.5 ± 8.4 years, 44.2% male) for analysis with a median follow-up of 6.0 (interquartile range: 5.1–7.0) years. Secondary analysis included participants with viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse and/or unreliable measurement. The association between liver stiffness and mortality was assessed using Cox regression. Associations between heart failure, CHD, and echocardiographic characteristics and liver stiffness were quantified with linear regression. Results: Liver stiffness ≄8.0 kPa was associated with mortality (aHR: 1.37, 95%CI: 1.00–1.89). However, this was driven by participants with heart failure (aHR: 2.48, 95%CI: 1.15–5.35), since high liver stiffness was not associated with mortality in participants without heart failure and/or CHD (aHR: 1.07, 95%CI: 0.70–1.64). Results were consistent when individuals with viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse or unreliable liver stiffness measurement were not excluded. Several cardiovascular characteristics were significantly associated with higher liver stiffness, e.g. heart failure, moderate/poor diastolic dysfunction, and right atrium diameter &gt; 4.5 cm. Conclusion: In our cohort of community-dwelling elderly, high liver stiffness was associated with excess mortality, primarily explained by participants with heart failure. Moreover, heart failure and its indicators were associated with increased liver stiffness.</p

    3MG: Meervoudige Milieu Monitoring voor Gebiedssturing; Een case study voor de Noordelijke Friese Wouden

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    Sinds 2005 is TransForum betrokken bij een praktijkproject in de Noordelijke Friese Wouden (het project NFW) waarin samen met boeren, bestuurders, overheden en maatschappelijke groepen wordt gezocht naar mogelijkheden om de beoogde zelfsturing vorm en inhoud te geven. Om voor milieukwaliteitdoelen een onderbouwd antwoord te kunnen geven heeft TransForum naast het praktijkproject NFW een meer analytisch gericht wetenschappelijk project ondersteund waarin een operationeel meetinstrument is ontwikkeld en getoetst. In deze studie is gebruik gemaakt van gegevens van aanwezige meetnetten in combinatie met geĂŻntegreerde modellen. Het betreft: ammoniakemissie, stikstofdepositie, grondwaterkwaliteit, oppervlaktewaterkwalitei

    Zelfsturing kan niet zonder doelen en monitoring

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    De leden van de Vereniging ‘Noardlike Fryske Wñlden’, grotendeels melkveehouders, willen graag zelf sturen op milieudoelen in de Noordelijke Friese Wouden. Hierbij willen zij collectief op milieudoelstellingen worden afgerekend, in plaats van individueel te moeten voldoen aan generieke middelvoorschriften. Twee zaken zijn noodzakelijk voor deze vorm van zelfsturing. Ten eerste moeten er heldere doelen voor milieuprestaties en milieukwaliteit zijn waarop gestuurd kan worden. Ten tweede moet er een monitoringsysteem zijn om vast te stellen of de doelen worden gehaald. Dit artikel beschrijft de ontwikkeling van milieumonitoring om de gewenste zelfsturing mogelijk te make

    Les Houches 2015: Physics at TeV colliders - new physics working group report

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    We present the activities of the 'New Physics' working group for the 'Physics at TeV Colliders' workshop (Les Houches, France, 1-19 June, 2015). Our report includes new physics studies connected with the Higgs boson and its properties, direct search strategies, reinterpretation of the LHC results in the building of viable models and new computational tool developments. Important signatures for searches for natural new physics at the LHC and new assessments of the interplay between direct dark matter searches and the LHC are also considered.Comment: Proceedings of the New Physics Working Group of the 2015 Les Houches Workshop, Physics at TeV Colliders, Les Houches 1-19 June 2015. 197 page

    Time-trends in disease characteristics and comorbidities in patients with chronic hepatitis B in the period 1980–2020

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    Background & aims: The incidence of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is declining due to successful implementation of vaccination programs and widespread use of antiviral therapy. We aimed to study time-trends in disease characteristics and comorbidities in newly referred CHB patients. Methods: : We collected information on hepatitis B virus (HBV) related disease characteristics (including hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) status, viremia, stage of liver fibrosis and indication for treatment and/or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance) and presence of comorbidities in all CHB patients referred to our center from 1980 through 2020. Patient characteristics were compared according to referral date (before 2000, between 2000 and 2010 and after 2010). Results: : We identified 1515 eligible patients. Patients referred after 2010 were older (36 versus 34 years, p < 0.001), more often non-Caucasian (82.3% versus 55.0%, p < 0.001) and more frequently HBeAg negative (81.5% versus 49.8%, p < 0.001) when compared to patients referred before 2000. Adjusted for ethnicity, sex and age, patients referred after 2010 were less likely to have significant fibrosis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]:0.178, p < 0.001) or indication for antiviral therapy (aOR:0.342, p < 0.001) but were more likely to be affected by the metabolic syndrome (aOR:1.985, p = 0.013), hepatic steatosis (aOR:1.727, p < 0.001) and metabolic dysfunction associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) (aOR:1.438, p = 0.013). Conclusions: : The characteristics of the CHB populations are changing. Newly referred patients are older, have less active HBV related liver disease but are more likely to be co-affected by MAFLD. These findings provide guidance for adequate allocation of resources to cope with the changing characteristics of the CHB population