30 research outputs found

    Morphological and Biochemical Adaptive Changes Associated With A Short-period Starvation of Adult Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica)

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    Objective: The morphological and biochemical impact of a short-period of starvation on Japanese quail was investigated. Materials and Methods: Ten adult male Japanese quail were divided into two groups; control fed and starved. The control-fed group was offered food and water ad libitum and the starved group was subjected to a short-period of food deprivation. After 2.5 days, the serum was obtained and different parameters including the total protein, AST, ALT, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, creatinine and urea were assessed. Gastrointestinal tract, stomach and liver were excised and their masses were estimated. Paraffin and resin embedded sections from the proventriculus, gizzard, liver, duodenum, kidney and pancreas were examined with a light microscopy. Results: Significant decreases in the masses of body, gastrointestinal tract, stomach and liver of the starved group were recorded. The liver and duodenum were the most affected organs. The liver showed depletion of glycogen, vacuolation, hyperemia and cellular infiltrations. Duodenal villi showed degenerative changes in lamina epithelialis and cellular infiltrations in the lamina propria. Biochemical analysis revealed a decreased level of total protein, AST and ALT, increased cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL and unchanged HDL, urea and creatinine by starvation. Conclusion: The current study described in details the effect of short time starvation on quail organs. Time-point adaptive responses of male quail to starvation and refeeding will be investigated in future studies

    Fraudulence Risk Strategic Assessment of Processed Meat Products

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     A total of 450 samples of different meat products (luncheon chicken, luncheon meat, sausage, beef burger, minced meat, and kofta) were examined. Fifty samples of each type of product were collected from different supermarkets in Assiut City. All of the samples were analysed by different microscopy techniques (light, fluorescence, histochemical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)) for the detection of meat adulteration. Haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used for general histological examinations. Different histochemical techniques were used to stain paraffinised sections. The adulterated tissues detected were the nuchal ligament, large elastic blood vessels, muscular artery, elastic fibers, lung, cardiac muscle fibers, tendon, spongy bone, bone of immature animals, adipose tissue, cartilage (hyaline and white fibrocartilage), and smooth muscle of visceral organs. SEM detected contamination of the minced meat by bacteria and yeast. Fluorescence microscopy was used as an effective method for the detection of bone and cartilage. Interestingly, the stained acidophilic cytoplasm of skeletal muscle changed to basophilic, and the skeletal muscle was suspected to be diseased. The findings of the present work provide qualitative evaluations of the detection of unauthorised tissues in different meat products using different effective histological techniques

    Morphology of migrating telocytes and their potential role in stem cell differentiation during cartilage development in catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

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    Telocytes (TCs) are present in a broad range of species and regulate processes including homeostasis, tissue regeneration and immunosurveillance. This novel study describes the morphological features of migrating TCs and their role during cartilage development within the air-breathing organ in Clarias gariepinus, the African sharptooth catfish. Light microscopy (LM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to examine the TCs. TCs had a cell body and telopodes which formed 3D networks in the cartilage canals and extended their telopodes to become the foremost cellular elements penetrating the cartilage matrix. The TCs were also rich in lysosomes that secreted products to the extracellular matrix (ECM). In addition, TCs formed a homocellular synaptic-like structure that had a synaptic cleft, and the presynaptic portion consisted of a slightly expanded terminal of the telopodes which contained intermediate filaments and secretory vesicles. Gap junctions were also identified between TCs, which also connected to mesenchymal stem cells, differentiating chondrogenic cells, macrophages, apoptotic cells, and endothelial cells. In addition to describing the basic morphology of TCs, the current study also investigated migrating TCs. The TC telopodes acquired an irregular contour when migrating rather than exhibiting an extended profile. Migrating TCs additionally had ill-defined cell bodies, condensed chromatin, thickened telopodes, and podoms which were closely attached to the cell body. The TCs also expressed markers for MMP-9, CD117, CD34 and RhoA. In conclusion, TCs may play multiple roles during development and maturation, including promoting angiogenesis, cell migration, and regulating stem cell differentiation

    Antimicrobial resistance among migrants in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    BACKGROUND: Rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are rising globally and there is concern that increased migration is contributing to the burden of antibiotic resistance in Europe. However, the effect of migration on the burden of AMR in Europe has not yet been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and synthesise data for AMR carriage or infection in migrants to Europe to examine differences in patterns of AMR across migrant groups and in different settings. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and Scopus with no language restrictions from Jan 1, 2000, to Jan 18, 2017, for primary data from observational studies reporting antibacterial resistance in common bacterial pathogens among migrants to 21 European Union-15 and European Economic Area countries. To be eligible for inclusion, studies had to report data on carriage or infection with laboratory-confirmed antibiotic-resistant organisms in migrant populations. We extracted data from eligible studies and assessed quality using piloted, standardised forms. We did not examine drug resistance in tuberculosis and excluded articles solely reporting on this parameter. We also excluded articles in which migrant status was determined by ethnicity, country of birth of participants' parents, or was not defined, and articles in which data were not disaggregated by migrant status. Outcomes were carriage of or infection with antibiotic-resistant organisms. We used random-effects models to calculate the pooled prevalence of each outcome. The study protocol is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016043681. FINDINGS: We identified 2274 articles, of which 23 observational studies reporting on antibiotic resistance in 2319 migrants were included. The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or AMR infection in migrants was 25路4% (95% CI 19路1-31路8; I2 =98%), including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (7路8%, 4路8-10路7; I2 =92%) and antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (27路2%, 17路6-36路8; I2 =94%). The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or infection was higher in refugees and asylum seekers (33路0%, 18路3-47路6; I2 =98%) than in other migrant groups (6路6%, 1路8-11路3; I2 =92%). The pooled prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms was slightly higher in high-migrant community settings (33路1%, 11路1-55路1; I2 =96%) than in migrants in hospitals (24路3%, 16路1-32路6; I2 =98%). We did not find evidence of high rates of transmission of AMR from migrant to host populations. INTERPRETATION: Migrants are exposed to conditions favouring the emergence of drug resistance during transit and in host countries in Europe. Increased antibiotic resistance among refugees and asylum seekers and in high-migrant community settings (such as refugee camps and detention facilities) highlights the need for improved living conditions, access to health care, and initiatives to facilitate detection of and appropriate high-quality treatment for antibiotic-resistant infections during transit and in host countries. Protocols for the prevention and control of infection and for antibiotic surveillance need to be integrated in all aspects of health care, which should be accessible for all migrant groups, and should target determinants of AMR before, during, and after migration. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre, Imperial College Healthcare Charity, the Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare-associated Infections and Antimictobial Resistance at Imperial College London

    Surgical site infection after gastrointestinal surgery in high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries: a prospective, international, multicentre cohort study