548 research outputs found

    New Analysis of the Delta I = 1/2 Rule in Kaon Decays and the B_K Parameter

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    We present a new analysis of the Delta I = 1/2 rule in K --> pi pi decays and the B_K parameter. We use the 1/N_c expansion within the effective chiral lagrangian for pseudoscalar mesons and compute the hadronic matrix elements at leading and next-to-leading order in the chiral and the 1/N_c expansions. Numerically, our calculation reproduces the dominant Delta I = 1/2 K --> pi pi amplitude. Our result depends only moderately on the choice of the cutoff scale in the chiral loops. The Delta I = 3/2 amplitude emerges sufficiently suppressed but shows a significant dependence on the cutoff. The B_K parameter turns out to be smaller than the value previously obtained in the 1/N_c approach. It also shows a significant dependence on the choice of the cutoff scale. Our results indicate that corrections from higher order terms and/or higher resonances are large for the Delta I = 3/2 K --> pi pi amplitude and the (|Delta S| = 2) K^0 -- anti K^0 transition amplitude.Comment: 50 pages, LaTeX, 13 eps figure

    Analyzing epsilon'/epsilon in the 1/N_c Expansion

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    We present a recent analysis of epsilon'/epsilon in the 1/N_c expansion. We show that the 1/N_c corrections to the matrix element of Q_6 are large and positive, indicating a Delta I=1/2 enhancement similar to the one of Q_1 and Q_2 which dominate the CP conserving amplitude. This enhances the CP ratio and can bring the standard model prediction close to the measured value for central values of the parameters.Comment: One reference corrected. 5 pages, talk presented by P.H. Soldan at the 3. International Conference on B Physics and CP Violation, Taipei, Taiwan, December 3 - 7, 1999. Slightly expanded version of the article submitted to the proceeding

    Momentum Distribution in the Decay B-->J/psi+X

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    We combine the NRQCD formalism for the inclusive color singlet and octet production of charmonium states with the parton and the ACCMM model, respectively, and calculate the momentum distribution in the decay B-->J/psi+X. Neglecting the kinematics of soft gluon radiation, we find that the motion of the b quark in the bound state can account, to a large extent, for the observed spectrum. The parton model gives a satisfactory presentation of the data, provided that the heavy quark momentum distribution is taken to be soft. To be explicit, we obtain epsilon_p=O(0.008-0.012) for the parameter of the Peterson et al. distribution function. The ACCMM model can account for the data more accurately. The preferred Fermi momentum p_F=O(0.57 GeV) is in good agreement with recent studies of the heavy quark's kinetic energy.Comment: revised version to be published in Phys. Rev. D; 27 pages, LaTeX, 7 eps figures, uses a4wide.sty, epsfig.sty and amssymb.st

    Detection of an optical transient following the 13 March 2000 short/hard gamma-ray burst

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    We imaged the error box of a gamma-ray burst of the short (0.5 s), hard type (GRB 000313), with the BOOTES-1 experiment in southern Spain, starting 4 min after the gamma-ray event, in the I-band. A bright optical transient (OT 000313) with I = 9.4 +/- 0.1 was found in the BOOTES-1 image, close to the error box (3-sigma) provided by BATSE. Late time VRIK'-band deep observations failed to reveal an underlying host galaxy. If the OT 000313 is related to the short, hard GRB 000313, this would be the first optical counterpart ever found for this kind of events (all counterparts to date have been found for bursts of the long, soft type). The fact that only prompt optical emission has been detected (but no afterglow emission at all, as supported by theoretical models) might explain why no optical counterparts have ever been found for short, hard GRBs.This fact suggests that most short bursts might occur in a low-density medium and favours the models that relate them to binary mergers in very low-density enviroments.Comment: Revised version. Accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics Letters, 5 pages, 3 figure

    Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) screening, case and contact treatment, and condom promotion resulting in STI Reduction two years later in rural Malawi

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    As part of a longitudinal cohort study in rural Malawi in 2000, 469 men and 758 women were asked to respond to a series of surveys, were tested for gonorrhea and chlamydia, and received their results and treatment, if applicable, for themselves and up to 2 partners if positive for either sexually transmitted infection (STI). Two years later, in 2002, 328 men and 525 women were again asked to respond to survey questions, tested again for gonorrhea and chlamydia, and were also tested for HIV - of these, 247 men and 453 women had also given urine samples in 2000. In 2000, the gonorrhea and chlamydia prevalence was 6.2% and 5.8% among men, and 3.6% and 4.9% among women. Two years later, prevalence of gonorrhea and chlamydia was 0.7% and 1.4% among men, and 1.3% and 1.1% among women. Although we did not test for HIV in the first round, the HIV prevalence in 2002 was 19.2%. The implications of the findings are discussed in the context of interventions for STI prevention and to reduce HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa

    1/N_c Corrections to the Hadronic Matrix Elements of Q_6 and Q_8 in K --> pi pi Decays

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    We calculate long-distance contributions to the amplitudes A(K^0 --> pi pi, I) induced by the gluon and the electroweak penguin operators Q_6 and Q_8, respectively. We use the 1/N_c expansion within the effective chiral lagrangian for pseudoscalar mesons. In addition, we adopt a modified prescription for the identification of meson momenta in the chiral loop corrections in order to achieve a consistent matching to the short-distance part. Our approach leads to an explicit classification of the loop diagrams into non-factorizable and factorizable, the scale dependence of the latter being absorbed in the low-energy coefficients of the effective theory. Along these lines we calculate the one-loop corrections to the O(p^0) term in the chiral expansion of both operators. In the numerical results, we obtain moderate corrections to B_6^(1/2) and a substantial reduction of B_8^(3/2).Comment: 32 pages, LaTeX, 8 eps figures. One reference added, to appear in Phys. Rev.

    Disease-driven Reduction in Human Mobility Influences Human-Mosquito Contacts and Dengue Transmission Dynamics

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    Heterogeneous exposure to mosquitoes determines an individual’s contribution to vector-borne pathogen transmission. Particularly for dengue virus (DENV), there is a major difficulty in quantifying human-vector contacts due to the unknown coupled effect of key heterogeneities. To test the hypothesis that the reduction of human out-of-home mobility due to dengue illness will significantly influence population-level dynamics and the structure of DENV transmission chains, we extended an existing modeling framework to include social structure, disease-driven mobility reductions, and heterogeneous transmissibility from different infectious groups. Compared to a baseline model, naïve to human pre-symptomatic infectiousness and disease-driven mobility changes, a model including both parameters predicted an increase of 37% in the probability of a DENV outbreak occurring; a model including mobility change alone predicted a 15.5% increase compared to the baseline model. At the individual level, models including mobility change led to a reduction of the importance of out-of-home onward transmission (R, the fraction of secondary cases predicted to be generated by an individual) by symptomatic individuals (up to -62%) at the expense of an increase in the relevance of their home (up to +40%). An individual’s positive contribution to R could be predicted by a GAM including a non-linear interaction between an individual’s biting suitability and the number of mosquitoes in their home (\u3e10 mosquitoes and 0.6 individual attractiveness significantly increased R). We conclude that the complex fabric of social relationships and differential behavioral response to dengue illness cause the fraction of symptomatic DENV infections to concentrate transmission in specific locations, whereas asymptomatic carriers (including individuals in their pre-symptomatic period) move the virus throughout the landscape. Our findings point to the difficulty of focusing vector control interventions reactively on the home of symptomatic individuals, as this approach will fail to contain virus propagation by visitors to their house and asymptomatic carriers

    Family Planning Decisions, Perceptions and Gender Dynamics among Couples in Mwanza, Tanzania: A Qualitative Study.

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    Contraceptive use is low in developing countries which are still largely driven by male dominated culture and patriarchal values. This study explored family planning (FP) decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples in Mwanza region of Tanzania. Twelve focus group discussions and six in-depth interviews were used to collect information from married or cohabiting males and females aged 18-49. The participants were purposively selected. Qualitative methods were used to explore family planning decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples. A guide with questions related to family planning perceptions, decisions and gender dynamics was used. The discussions and interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed manually and subjected to content analysis. Four themes emerged during the study. First, "risks and costs" which refer to the side effects of FP methods and the treatment of side -effects as well as the costs inherit in being labeled as an unfaithful spouse. Second, "male involvement" as men showed little interest in participating in family planning issues. However, the same men were mentioned as key decision-makers even on the number of children a couple should have and the child spacing of these children. Third, "gender relations and communication" as participants indicated that few women participated in decision-making on family planning and the number of children to have. Fourth, "urban-rural differences", life in rural favoring having more children than urban areas therefore, the value of children depended on the place of residence. Family Planning programs should adapt the promotion of communication as well as joint decision-making on FP among couples as a strategy aimed at enhancing FP use
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