59 research outputs found

    Solar neutrino detection

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    More than 40 years ago, neutrinos where conceived as a way to test the validity of the solar models which tell us that stars are powered by nuclear fusion reactions. The first measurement of the neutrino flux, in 1968 in the Homestake mine in South Dakota, detected only one third of the expected value, originating what has been known as the Solar Neutrino Problem. Different experiments were built in order to understand the origin of this discrepancy. Now we know that neutrinos undergo oscillation phenomenon changing their nature traveling from the core of the Sun to our detectors. In the work the 40 year long saga of the neutrino detection is presented; from the first proposals to test the solar models to last real time measurements of the low energy part of the neutrino spectrum.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figures. III School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics August 25 to September 5, 2008 Arequipa (Peru) AIP conference proceedin

    IceCube3--a new window on the Universe

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    This paper gives an overview of the scientific goals of IceCube with an emphasis on the importance of atmospheric neutrinos. Status and schedule for completing the detector are presented.Comment: 13 pages, 6 figures, to appear in A.I.P. Conf. Proceedings, 3rd Latin American School on Cosmic Rays, Arequipa, Peru, September, 200

    A model for the electromagnetic spectrum of the inner jets of Cen A

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    Centaurus A, the closest active galaxy, has been detected from radio to high-energy gamma-rays. The synchrotron radiation by extremely high energy protons may be a suitable mechanism to explain the MeV to GeV emission detected by the instruments of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, as coming from the inner jets. This scenario requires a relatively large magnetic field of about 10^4 G that could be present only close to the central black hole. We investigate the spectral energy distribution (SED) resulting from a one-zone compact acceleration region, where both leptonic and hadronic relativistic populations arise. We present here results of such a model, where we have considered synchrotron radiation by primary electrons and protons, inverse Compton interactions, and gamma-ray emission originated by the inelastic hadronic interactions between relativistic protons and cold nuclei within the jets themselves. Photo-meson production by relativistic hadrons were also taken into account, as well as the effects of secondary particles injected by all interactions. The internal and external absorption of gamma rays is shown to be of great relevance to shape the observable SED, which was also recently constrained by the results of HESS.Comment: 13 pages (ref. style), submitted to MNRAS on December 04, 2008. Waiting for revie

    Compet√™ncia no setor sa√ļde: an√°lise da reforma sueca (1992-1995)

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    The paper reviews the outcomes and failures of the Swedish health care reform, as well as the lessons learned for accomplishing better financial results and quality standards.El art√≠culo revisa los √©xitos y fracasos de la reforma sueca de salud, as√≠ como las lecciones que dej√≥ en su af√°n de alcanzar mejores resultados financieros y est√°ndares de calidad.O artigo revisa os √™xitos e fracassos da reforma do setor de sa√ļde sueco, assim como as li√ß√Ķes que deixou em sua proposta de alcan√ßar melhores resultados financeiros e padr√Ķes de qualidade

    Redox feedback regulation of ANAC089 signaling alters seed germination and stress response

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    21 p.-4 fig.-2 tab. 1 graph. abst.The interplay between the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the gasotransmitter nitric oxide (NO) regulates seed germination and post-germinative seedling growth. We show that GAP1 (germination in ABA and cPTIO 1) encodes the transcription factor ANAC089 with a critical membrane-bound domain and extranuclear localization. ANAC089 mutants lacking the membrane-tethered domain display insensitivity to ABA,salt, and osmotic and cold stresses, revealing a repressor function. Whole-genome transcriptional profiling and DNA-binding specificity reveals that ANAC089 regulates ABA- and redox-related genes. ANAC089 truncated mutants exhibit higher NO and lower ROS and ABA endogenous levels, alongside an altered thiol and disulfide homeostasis. Consistently, translocation of ANAC089 to the nucleus is directed by changes in cellular redox status after treatments with NO scavengers and redox-related compounds. Our results reveal ANAC089 to be a master regulator modulating redox homeostasis and NO levels, able to repress ABA synthesis and signaling during Arabidopsis seed germination and abiotic stress.Wethank the Spanish networks BIO2015-68957-REDT and RED2018-102397-T for stimulating discussions, as well as Dr. Jos√© M. Carrasco and Dr. Pablo Vera (IBMCP-CSIC) for help with the protein-expression experiments of the PBM. This work was financed by grants EcoSeed Impacts of Environmental Conditions on Seed Quality ‚Äė‚ÄėEcoSeed-311840‚Äô‚Äô ERC.KBBE.2012.1.1-01;BIO2017-85758-R and CSD2007-00057 (TRANSPLANTA) from the Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovaci√≥n y Universidades (MICIU) (Spain); SA313P18 and SA137P20 from Junta de Castilla y Le√≥n; Escalera de Excelencia CLU-2018-04 co-funded by the P.O. FEDER of Castilla y Le√≥n 2014‚Äď2020 Spain (to O.L.); and the PhD and University Teacher Training Fellowship, Spanish Ministry of Science and Education (to P.A.).Peer reviewe

    One-year breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection and correlates of protection in fully vaccinated hematological patients

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    The long-term clinical efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines according to antibody response in immunosuppressed patients such as hematological patients has been little explored. A prospective multicenter registry-based cohort study conducted from December 2020 to July 2022 by the Spanish Transplant and Cell Therapy group, was used to analyze the relationship of antibody response over time after full vaccination (at 3-6 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months) (2 doses) and of booster doses with breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection in 1551 patients with hematological disorders. At a median follow-up of 388 days after complete immunization, 266 out of 1551 (17%) developed breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection at median of 86 days (range 7-391) after full vaccination. The cumulative incidence was 18% [95% confidence interval (C.I.), 16-20%]. Multivariate analysis identified higher incidence in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients (29%) and with the use of corticosteroids (24.5%), whereas female sex (15.5%) and more than 1 year after last therapy (14%) were associated with a lower incidence (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). Median antibody titers at different time points were significantly lower in breakthrough cases than in non-cases. A serological titer cut-off of 250 BAU/mL was predictive of breakthrough infection and its severity. SARS-CoV-2 infection-related mortality was encouragingly low (1.9%) in our series. Our study describes the incidence of and risk factors for COVID-19 breakthrough infections during the initial vaccination and booster doses in the 2021 to mid-2022 period. The level of antibody titers at any time after 2-dose vaccination is strongly linked with protection against both breakthrough infection and severe disease, even with the Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant

    Re-visitar la comunicación popular: ensayos para comprenderla como escenario estratégico de resistencia social y re-existencia política

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    Ensayo para comprender la comunicaci√≥n como escenario estrat√©gico de resistencia social y re-existencia pol√≠tica.Este libro siembra pistas valiosas para esa comunicaci√≥n del com√ļn que est√° en el horizonte de nuestras reflexiones. Al abrir el campo de la Comunicaci√≥n en m√ļltiples direcciones y pensarlo desde las experiencias (en Colombia, M√©xico Y Bolivia), recuperamos la esencia olvidada de este fecundo espacio que se mantiene vivo gracias al aporte de muchos. Comprendemos la comunicaci√≥n popular como un escenario estrat√©gico de resistencia social y re-existencia pol√≠tica. Lo cual equivale a apostar por una re-lectura pol√≠tica desde la originaria Abya Yala, en medio de una coyuntura hist√≥rica de enorme incertidumbre y radicalizaci√≥n del poder hegem√≥nico dominante

    Re-visitar la comunicación popular: ensayos para comprenderla como escenario estratégico de resistencia social y re-existencia política

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    Ensayo para comprender la comunicaci√≥n como escenario estrat√©gico de resistencia social y re-existencia pol√≠tica.Este libro siembra pistas valiosas para esa comunicaci√≥n del com√ļn que est√° en el horizonte de nuestras reflexiones. Al abrir el campo de la Comunicaci√≥n en m√ļltiples direcciones y pensarlo desde las experiencias (en Colombia, M√©xico Y Bolivia), recuperamos la esencia olvidada de este fecundo espacio que se mantiene vivo gracias al aporte de muchos. Comprendemos la comunicaci√≥n popular como un escenario estrat√©gico de resistencia social y re-existencia pol√≠tica. Lo cual equivale a apostar por una re-lectura pol√≠tica desde la originaria Abya Yala, en medio de una coyuntura hist√≥rica de enorme incertidumbre y radicalizaci√≥n del poder hegem√≥nico dominante

    SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibody detection after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: Prospective survey from the Spanish Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and Cell Therapy Group

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    This is a multicenter prospective observational study that included a large cohort (n = 397) of allogeneic (allo-HSCT; (n = 311) and autologous (ASCT) hematopoietic stem cell transplant (n = 86) recipients who were monitored for antibody detection within 3‚Äď6‚ÄČweeks after complete severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination from February 1, 2021, to July 20, 2021. Most patients (n = 387, 97.4%) received mRNA-based vaccines. Most of the recipients (93%) were vaccinated more than 1 year after transplant. Detectable SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies were observed in 242 (78%) of allo-HSCT and in 73 (85%) of ASCT recipients. Multivariate analysis in allo-HSCT recipients identified lymphopenia < 1‚ÄČ√ó‚ÄČ109/ml (odds ratio [OR] 0.33, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.16‚Äď0.69, p = .003), active graft versus host disease (GvHD; OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.27‚Äď0.98, p = .04) and vaccination within the first year of transplant (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.15‚Äď0.9, p = .04) associated with lower antibody detection whereas. In ASCT, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02‚Äď0.44, p = .003) and active corticosteroid therapy (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.02‚Äď0.87, p = .03) were associated with lower detection rate. We report an encouraging rate of SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies detection in these severe immunocompromised patients. Lymphopenia, GvHD, the timing of vaccine, and NHL and corticosteroids therapy should be considered in allo-HSCT and ASCT, respectively, to identify candidates for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies monitoring.Peer reviewe

    Height and body-mass index trajectories of school-aged children and adolescents from 1985 to 2019 in 200 countries and territories: a pooled analysis of 2181 population-based studies with 65 million participants

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    Summary Background Comparable global data on health and nutrition of school-aged children and adolescents are scarce. We aimed to estimate age trajectories and time trends in mean height and mean body-mass index (BMI), which measures weight gain beyond what is expected from height gain, for school-aged children and adolescents. Methods For this pooled analysis, we used a database of cardiometabolic risk factors collated by the Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Collaboration. We applied a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1985 to 2019 in mean height and mean BMI in 1-year age groups for ages 5‚Äď19 years. The model allowed for non-linear changes over time in mean height and mean BMI and for non-linear changes with age of children and adolescents, including periods of rapid growth during adolescence. Findings We pooled data from 2181 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in 65 million participants in 200 countries and territories. In 2019, we estimated a difference of 20 cm or higher in mean height of 19-year-old adolescents between countries with the tallest populations (the Netherlands, Montenegro, Estonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina for boys; and the Netherlands, Montenegro, Denmark, and Iceland for girls) and those with the shortest populations (Timor-Leste, Laos, Solomon Islands, and Papua New Guinea for boys; and Guatemala, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Timor-Leste for girls). In the same year, the difference between the highest mean BMI (in Pacific island countries, Kuwait, Bahrain, The Bahamas, Chile, the USA, and New Zealand for both boys and girls and in South Africa for girls) and lowest mean BMI (in India, Bangladesh, Timor-Leste, Ethiopia, and Chad for boys and girls; and in Japan and Romania for girls) was approximately 9‚Äď10 kg/m2. In some countries, children aged 5 years started with healthier height or BMI than the global median and, in some cases, as healthy as the best performing countries, but they became progressively less healthy compared with their comparators as they grew older by not growing as tall (eg, boys in Austria and Barbados, and girls in Belgium and Puerto Rico) or gaining too much weight for their height (eg, girls and boys in Kuwait, Bahrain, Fiji, Jamaica, and Mexico; and girls in South Africa and New Zealand). In other countries, growing children overtook the height of their comparators (eg, Latvia, Czech Republic, Morocco, and Iran) or curbed their weight gain (eg, Italy, France, and Croatia) in late childhood and adolescence. When changes in both height and BMI were considered, girls in South Korea, Vietnam, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and some central Asian countries (eg, Armenia and Azerbaijan), and boys in central and western Europe (eg, Portugal, Denmark, Poland, and Montenegro) had the healthiest changes in anthropometric status over the past 3¬∑5 decades because, compared with children and adolescents in other countries, they had a much larger gain in height than they did in BMI. The unhealthiest changes‚ÄĒgaining too little height, too much weight for their height compared with children in other countries, or both‚ÄĒoccurred in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, New Zealand, and the USA for boys and girls; in Malaysia and some Pacific island nations for boys; and in Mexico for girls. Interpretation The height and BMI trajectories over age and time of school-aged children and adolescents are highly variable across countries, which indicates heterogeneous nutritional quality and lifelong health advantages and risks
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