203 research outputs found

    ATM optical contamination study - Reaction control system rocket engine space plume flow fields Interim report

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    Apollo telescopic experiment contamination by space vehicle exhaust product

    The skeletal phenotype of chondroadherin deficient mice

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    Chondroadherin, a leucine rich repeat extracellular matrix protein with functions in cell to matrix interactions, binds cells via their a2b1 integrin as well as via cell surface proteoglycans, providing for different sets of signals to the cell. Additionally, the protein acts as an anchor to the matrix by binding tightly to collagens type I and II as well as type VI. We generated mice with inactivated chondroadherin gene to provide integrated studies of the role of the protein. The null mice presented distinct phenotypes with affected cartilage as well as bone. At 3–6 weeks of age the epiphyseal growth plate was widened most pronounced in the proliferative zone. The proteome of the femoral head articular cartilage at 4 months of age showed some distinct differences, with increased deposition of cartilage intermediate layer protein 1 and fibronectin in the chondroadherin deficient mice, more pronounced in the female. Other proteins show decreased levels in the deficient mice, particularly pronounced for matrilin-1, thrombospondin-1 and notably the members of the a1-antitrypsin family of proteinase inhibitors as well as for a member of the bone morphogenetic protein growth factor family. Thus, cartilage homeostasis is distinctly altered. The bone phenotype was expressed in several ways. The number of bone sialoprotein mRNA expressing cells in the proximal tibial metaphysic was decreased and the osteoid surface was increased possibly indicating a change in mineral metabolism. Micro-CT revealed lower cortical thickness and increased structure model index, i.e. the amount of plates and rods composing the bone trabeculas. The structural changes were paralleled by loss of function, where the null mice showed lower femoral neck failure load and tibial strength during mechanical testing at 4 months of age. The skeletal phenotype points at a role for chondroadherin in both bone and cartilage homeostasis, however, without leading to altered longitudinal growth

    Prognostic value of hedgehog signal component expressions in hepatoblastoma patients

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Objective</p> <p>Activation of hedgehog (Hh) pathway has been implicated in the development of human malignancies. Hh as well as related downstream target genes has been extensively studied in many kinds of malignant tumours for clinical diagnostic or prognostic utilities. This study aimed at investigating whether Hh molecules provides a molecular marker of hepatoblastoma malignancy.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We obtained tissue sections from 32 patients with hepatoblastoma as well as cholestasis and normal control. Immunohistochemical analysis were performed to determine Hh signal components in human hepatoblastoma. The prognostic significance of single expression of Hh signal components were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression models and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for statistical analysis.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Expression of Hh signal components showed an increase in hepatoblastoma compared with chole stasis and normal tissues. There was a positive correlation between Smo or Gli1 expression and tumor clinicopathological features, such as histological type, tumor grade, tumor size and clinical stage. Both Smo or Gli1 protein high expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis by univariate analyses and multivariate analyses.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Abnormal Hh signaling activation plays important roles in the malignant potential of hepatoblastoma. Gli1 expression is an independent prognostic marker.</p

    Collagen I but not Matrigel matrices provide an MMP-dependent barrier to ovarian cancer cell penetration

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    Abstract Background The invasive potential of cancer cells is usually assessed in vitro using Matrigel as a surrogate basement membrane. Yet cancer cell interaction with collagen I matrices is critical, particularly for the peritoneal metastatic route undertaken by several cancer types including ovarian. Matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activity is important to enable cells to overcome the barrier constraints imposed by basement membranes and stromal matrices in vivo. Our objective was to compare matrices reconstituted from collagen I and Matrigel as representative barriers for ovarian cancer cell invasion. Methods The requirement of MMP activity for ovarian cancer cell penetration of Matrigel and collagen matrices was assessed in 2D transwell and 3D spheroid culture systems. Results The broad range MMP inhibitor GM6001 completely prevented cell perforation of polymerised collagen I-coated transwell membranes. In contrast, GM6001 decreased ES-2 cell penetration of Matrigel by only ~30% and had no effect on HEY cell Matrigel penetration. In 3D culture, ovarian cancer cells grown as spheroids also migrated into surrounding Matrigel matrices despite MMP blockade. In contrast, MMP activity was required for invasion into 3D matrices of collagen I reconstituted from acid-soluble rat-tail collagen I, but not from pepsin-extracted collagen I (Vitrogen/Purecol), which lacks telopeptide regions. Conclusion Matrigel does not form representative barriers to ovarian cancer cells in either 2D or 3D culture systems. Our findings support the use of collagen I rather than Matrigel as a matrix barrier for invasion studies to better approximate critical interactions and events associated with peritoneal metastasis

    Cell–cell and cell–matrix dynamics in intraperitoneal cancer metastasis

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    The peritoneal metastatic route of cancer dissemination is shared by cancers of the ovary and gastrointestinal tract. Once initiated, peritoneal metastasis typically proceeds rapidly in a feed-forward manner. Several factors contribute to this efficient progression. In peritoneal metastasis, cancer cells exfoliate into the peritoneal fluid and spread locally, transported by peritoneal fluid. Inflammatory cytokines released by tumor and immune cells compromise the protective, anti-adhesive mesothelial cell layer that lines the peritoneal cavity, exposing the underlying extracellular matrix to which cancer cells readily attach. The peritoneum is further rendered receptive to metastatic implantation and growth by myofibroblastic cell behaviors also stimulated by inflammatory cytokines. Individual cancer cells suspended in peritoneal fluid can aggregate to form multicellular spheroids. This cellular arrangement imparts resistance to anoikis, apoptosis, and chemotherapeutics. Emerging evidence indicates that compact spheroid formation is preferentially accomplished by cancer cells with high invasive capacity and contractile behaviors. This review focuses on the pathological alterations to the peritoneum and the properties of cancer cells that in combination drive peritoneal metastasis

    Effects of Aging and Cyclosporin A on Collagen Turnover in Human Gingiva

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    BACKGROUND: WE AIMED AT CHARACTERIZING THE AGING GINGIVA ANALYZING: i) collagen content and turnover in human gingival tissues and fibroblasts obtained from healthy young and aging subjects. ii) the effect of cyclosporin A administration in human cultured gingival fibroblasts obtained from aging compared to young subjects. METHODS: Morphological analysis was performed on haematoxylin-eosin and Sirius red stained paraffin-embedded gingival biopsies from young and aging healthy subjects. The expression of the main genes and proteins involved in collagen turnover were determined by real time PCR, dot blot and SDS-zymography on cultured young and aging gingival fibroblasts, and after cyclosporin A administration. RESULTS: Our results suggest that in healthy aged people, gingival connective tissue is characterized by a similar collagen content and turnover. Collagen turnover pathways are similarly affected by cyclosporin A treatment in young and aging gingival fibroblasts. CONCLUSIONS: Cyclosporin A administration affects gingival collagen turnover pathways in young and aging fibroblasts at the same extent, suggesting that during aging cyclosporin A administration is not related to relevant collagen turnover modifications

    Estrogen Receptor Alpha Is Expressed in Mesenteric Mesothelial Cells and Is Internalized in Caveolae upon Freund's Adjuvant Treatment

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    Transformation of epithelial cells into connective tissue cells (epithelial-mesenchymal transition, EMT) is a complex mechanism involved in tumor metastasis, and in normal embryogenesis, while type II EMT is mainly associated with inflammatory events and tissue regenaration. In this study we examined type II EMT at the ultrastructural and molecular level during the inflammatory process induced by Freund's adjuvant treatment in rat mesenteric mesothelial cells. We found that upon the inflammatory stimulus mesothelial cells lost contact with the basal lamina and with each other, and were transformed into spindle-shaped cells. These morphological changes were accompanied by release of interleukins IL-1alpha, -1beta and IL-6 and by secretion of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) into the peritoneal cavity. Mesothelial cells also expressed estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha) as shown by immunolabeling at the light and electron microscopical levels, as well as by quantitative RT-PCR. The mRNA level of ER-alpha showed an inverse correlation with the secretion of TGF-beta. At the cellular and subcellular levels ER-alpha was colocalized with the coat protein caveolin-1 and was found in the plasma membrane of mesothelial cells, in caveolae close to multivesicular bodies (MVBs) or in the membrane of these organelles, suggesting that ER-alpha is internalized via caveola-mediated endocytosis during inflammation. We found asymmetric, thickened, electron dense areas on the limiting membrane of MVBs (MVB plaques) indicating that these sites may serve as platforms for collecting and organizing regulatory proteins. Our morphological observations and biochemical data can contribute to form a potential model whereby ER-alpha and its caveola-mediated endocytosis might play role in TGF-beta induced type II EMT in vivo

    Evidence for Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Cancer Stem Cells of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Initiation, growth, recurrence, and metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) have been related to the behavior of cancer stem cells (CSC) that can be identified by their aldehyde-dehydrogenase-isoform-1 (ALDH1) activity. We quantified and enriched ALDH1+ cells within HNSCC cell lines and subsequently characterized their phenotypical and functional properties like invasion capacity and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Spheroid culture enriched CSC from five HNSCC cell lines by up to 5-fold. In spheroid-derived cells (SDC) and the parental monolayer-derived cell line ALDH1, CD44, CD24, E-Cadherin, α-SMA, and Vimentin expression was compared by flow-cytometry and immunofluorescence together with proliferation and cell cycle analysis. Invasion activity was evaluated by Matrigel assay and expression of stemness-related transcription factors (TF) Nanog, Oct3/4, Sox2 and EMT-related genes Snail1 and 2, and Twist by real-time PCR. All cell lines formed spheroids that could self-renew and be serially re-passaged. ALDH1 expression was significantly higher in SDC. ALDH1+ cells showed increased colony-formation. The proportion of cells with a putative CSC marker constellation of CD44+/CD24− was highly variable (0.5% to 96%) in monolayer and spheroid cultures and overlapped in 0%–33% with the CD44+/CD24−/ALDH1+ cell subset. SDC had significantly higher invading activity. mRNA of the stemness-related genes Sox2, Nanog, and Oct3/4 was significantly increased in SDC of all cell lines. Twist was significantly increased in two while Snail2 showed a significant increase in one and a significant decrease in SDC of two cell lines. SDC had a higher G0 phase proportion, showed high-level expression of α-SMA and Vimentin, but significantly decreased E-Cadherin expression. HNSCC-lines harbor potential CSC, characterized by ALDH1 and stemness marker TF expression as well as properties like invasiveness, quiescence, and EMT. CSC can be enriched by anchorage-independent culture techniques, which may be important for the investigation of their contribution to therapy resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis
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