1,006 research outputs found

    Eye position modulates retinotopic responses in early visual areas: a bias for the straight-ahead direction

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    Even though the eyes constantly change position, the location of a stimulus can be accurately represented by a population of neurons with retinotopic receptive fields modulated by eye position gain fields. Recent electrophysiological studies, however, indicate that eye position gain fields may serve an additional function since they have a non-uniform spatial distribution that increases the neural response to stimuli in the straight-ahead direction. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a wide-field stimulus display to determine whether gaze modulations in early human visual cortex enhance the blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) response to stimuli that are straight-ahead. Subjects viewed rotating polar angle wedge stimuli centered straight-ahead or vertically displaced by ±20° eccentricity. Gaze position did not affect the topography of polar phase-angle maps, confirming that coding was retinotopic, but did affect the amplitude of the BOLD response, consistent with a gain field. In agreement with recent electrophysiological studies, BOLD responses in V1 and V2 to a wedge stimulus at a fixed retinal locus decreased when the wedge location in head-centered coordinates was farther from the straight-ahead direction. We conclude that stimulus-evoked BOLD signals are modulated by a systematic, non-uniform distribution of eye-position gain fields

    Systematic identification of silencers in human cells

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    The majority of the human genome does not encode proteins. Many of these noncoding regions contain important regulatory sequences that control gene expression. To date, most studies have focused on activators such as enhancers, but regions that repress gene expression-silencers-have not been systematically studied. We have developed a system that identifies silencer regions in a genome-wide fashion on the basis of silencer-mediated transcriptional repression of caspase 9. We found that silencers are widely distributed and may function in a tissue-specific fashion. These silencers harbor unique epigenetic signatures and are associated with specific transcription factors. Silencers also act at multiple genes, and at the level of chromosomal domains and long-range interactions. Deletion of silencer regions linked to the drug transporter genes ABCC2 and ABCG2 caused chemo-resistance. Overall, our study demonstrates that tissue-specific silencing is widespread throughout the human genome and probably contributes substantially to the regulation of gene expression and human biology.A genome-wide screen identifies silencer regions in human cells. Deletion of silencers linked to the transporter genes ABCC2 and ABCG2 causes their up-regulation and chemo-resistance

    Temperature-dependent development of Helicoverpa armigera (HĂŒbner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its larval parasitoid, Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): implications for species interactions

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    Habrobracon hebetor (Say) is a parasitoid of various Lepidoptera including Helicoverpa armigera (HĂŒbner), a key pest of different crops and vegetables. The development of both H. armigera and H. hebetor were simultaneously evaluated against a wide range of constant temperatures (10, 15, 17.5, 20, 25, 27.5, 30, 35, 37.5 and 40 °C). Helicoverpa armigera completed its development from egg to adult within a temperature range of 17.5–37.5 °C and H. hebetor completed its life cycle from egg to adult within a temperature range of 15–40 °C. Based on the Ikemoto and Takai model the developmental threshold (T o) and thermal constant (K) to complete the immature stages, of H. armigera were calculated as 11.6 °C and 513.6 DD, respectively, and 13 °C and 148 DD, respectively, for H. hebetor. Analytis/Briere-2 and Analytis/Briere-1 were adjudged the best non-linear models for prediction of phenology of H. armigera and H. hebetor, respectively and enabled estimation of the optimum (T opt) and maximum temperature (T max) for development with values of 34.8, 38.7, 36.3, and 43 °C for host and the parasitoid, respectively. Parasitisation by H. hebetor was maximal at 25 °C but occurred even at 40 °C. This study suggests although high temperature is limiting to insects, our estimates of the upper thermal limits for both species are higher than previously estimated. Some biological control of H. armigera by H. hebetor may persist in tropical areas, even with increasing temperatures due to climate change

    Observing Direct CP Violation in Untagged B-Meson Decays

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    Direct CP violation can exist in untagged B-meson decays to self-conjugate, three-particle final states; it would be realized as a population asymmetry in the untagged decay rate across the mirror line of the Dalitz plot of the three-body decay. We explore the numerical size of this direct CP-violating effect in a variety of B-meson decays to three pseudoscalar mesons; we show that the resulting asymmetry is comparable to the partial rate asymmetry in the analogous tagged decays, making the search for direct CP violation in the untagged decay rate, for which greater statistics accrue, advantageous.Comment: 31 pages, REVTeX4, 1 eps figure, references added, typos corrected, version to appear in PR

    Removing Discrete Ambiguities in CP Asymmetry Measurements

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    We discuss methods to resolve the ambiguities in CP violating phase angles ϕ\phi that are left when a measurement of sin⁥2ϕ\sin 2 \phi is made. We show what knowledge of hadronic quantities will be needed to fully resolve all such ambiguities.Comment: 23 pages, revtex, no figure

    Grain Surface Models and Data for Astrochemistry

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    AbstractThe cross-disciplinary field of astrochemistry exists to understand the formation, destruction, and survival of molecules in astrophysical environments. Molecules in space are synthesized via a large variety of gas-phase reactions, and reactions on dust-grain surfaces, where the surface acts as a catalyst. A broad consensus has been reached in the astrochemistry community on how to suitably treat gas-phase processes in models, and also on how to present the necessary reaction data in databases; however, no such consensus has yet been reached for grain-surface processes. A team of ∌25 experts covering observational, laboratory and theoretical (astro)chemistry met in summer of 2014 at the Lorentz Center in Leiden with the aim to provide solutions for this problem and to review the current state-of-the-art of grain surface models, both in terms of technical implementation into models as well as the most up-to-date information available from experiments and chemical computations. This review builds on the results of this workshop and gives an outlook for future directions

    High-spin transition quadrupole moments in neutron-rich Mo and Ru nuclei: Testing Îł softness?

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    The transition quadrupole moments, Qt, of rotational bands in the neutron-rich, even-mass 102-108Mo and 108-112Ru nuclei were measured in the 8-16 ℏ spin range with the Doppler-shift attenuation method. The nuclei were populated as fission fragments from 252Cf fission. The detector setup consisted of the Gammasphere spectrometer and the HERCULES fast-plastic array. At moderate spin, the Qt moments are found to be reduced with respect to the values near the ground states. Attempts to describe the observations in mean-field-based models, specifically cranked relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory, illustrate the challenge theory faces and the difficulty to infer information on γ softness and triaxiality from the data

    Characterization of octupole-type structures in Th 221

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    A detailed level scheme for Th221 has been established in an experiment using the O18+207Pb reaction at 96 MeV. The evaporation residues from this fissile system were selected with the HERCULES detector array and residue-gated Îł rays were measured with Gammasphere. Three band structures of interlinked, alternating-parity levels are observed, two of which are non-yrast. In addition, several high-lying excitations are found. The yrast band is seen up to spin-parity 37/2- and 39/2+, beyond which a high-spin feeding transition is observed. The non-yrast sequences are interpreted as parity-doublet structures, based on a configuration similar to that of the yrast band in Th223 (K=5/2). The key properties of even-odd nuclei in this mass region [B(E1)/B(E2) and B(M1)/B(E2) ratios, spin alignments, parity splittings] are reviewed

    Search for Higgs bosons decaying to tautau pairs in ppbar collisions at sqrt(s) = 1.96 TeV

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    We present a search for the production of neutral Higgs bosons decaying into tautau pairs in ppbar collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.4 fb-1, were collected by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We set upper limits at the 95% C.L. on the product of production cross section and branching ratio for a scalar resonance decaying into tautau pairs, and we then interpret these limits as limits on the production of Higgs bosons in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) and as constraints in the MSSM parameter space.Comment: 7 pages, 5 figures, submitted to PL
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