10,261 research outputs found

    Findings of the Joint Workshop on Evaluation of Impacts of Space Station Freedom Ground Configurations

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    At the workshop, experts from the plasma interactions community evaluated the impacts of environmental interactions on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) under each of the proposed grounding schemes. The grounding scheme chosen for the SSF power system was found to have serious implications for SSF design. Interactions of the SSF power system and structure with the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma differ significantly between different proposed grounding schemes. Environmental constraints will require modification of current SSF designs under any grounding scheme. Maintaining the present negative-grounding scheme compromises SSF safety, structural integrity, and electromagnetic compatibility. It also will increase contamination rates over alternative grounding schemes. One alternative, positive grounding of the array, requires redesign of the primary power system in work package four. Floating the array reduces the number of circuit changes to work package four but adds new hardware. Maintaining the current design will affect all work packages; however, no impacts were identified on work packages one, two, or three by positively grounding or floating the array, with the possible exception of extra corona protection in multi-wire connectors

    Multimodal Representation of Space in the Posterior Parietal Cortex and its use in Planning Movements

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    Recent experiments are reviewed that indicate that sensory signals from many modalities, as well as efference copy signals from motor structures, converge in the posterior parietal cortex in order to code the spatial locations of goals for movement. These signals are combined using a specific gain mechanism that enables the different coordinate frames of the various input signals to be combined into common, distributed spatial representations. These distributed representations can be used to convert the sensory locations of stimuli into the appropriate motor coordinates required for making directed movements. Within these spatial representations of the posterior parietal cortex are neural activities related to higher cognitive functions, including attention. We review recent studies showing that the encoding of intentions to make movements is also among the cognitive functions of this area

    Theoretical calculation of magnetic structure variation in Pr5Ni2Si3

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    The variation of magnetization with temperature of the Pr5Ni2Si3 compound was calculated using a nearest neighbor exchange interaction approximation. Pr atoms, which are the only element in this compound with a net magnetic moment, were classified into three types based on the number of nearest neighbor exchange interactions. The expected magnetization versus temperature curve for each type of Pr atom was calculated using the Brillouin function, as well as the average magnetization versus temperature curve for the entire unit cell. The results show that the “corner” atoms exhibit very different behavior from that of the other types of Pr atoms on the “center” or “edge” sites. This is due to the broken symmetry in exchange interaction at the corner site due to interactions with atoms from outside the unit cell that are in closer proximity than atoms within the unit cell. This is considered to be the cause of a second magnetic phase transition observed at a lower temperature than the Curie temperature

    Limiting Behaviour of the Mean Residual Life

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    In survival or reliability studies, the mean residual life or life expectancy is an important characteristic of the model. Here, we study the limiting behaviour of the mean residual life, and derive an asymptotic expansion which can be used to obtain a good approximation for large values of the time variable. The asymptotic expansion is valid for a quite general class of failure rate distributions--perhaps the largest class that can be expected given that the terms depend only on the failure rate and its derivatives.Comment: 19 page

    Brain amyloid in preclinical Alzheimer\u27s disease is associated with increased driving risk

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    INTRODUCTION: Postmortem studies suggest that fibrillar brain amyloid places people at higher risk for hazardous driving in the preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: We administered driving questionnaires to 104 older drivers (19 AD, 24 mild cognitive impairment, and 61 cognitive normal) who had a recent (18)F-florbetapir positron emission tomography scan. We examined associations of amyloid standardized uptake value ratios with driving behaviors: traffic violations or accidents in the past 3 years. RESULTS: The frequency of violations or accidents was curvilinear with respect to standardized uptake value ratios, peaking around a value of 1.1 (model r(2) = 0.10, P = .002); moreover, this relationship was evident for the cognitively normal participants. DISCUSSION: We found that driving risk is strongly related to accumulating amyloid on positron emission tomography, and that this trend is evident in the preclinical stage of AD. Brain amyloid burden may in part explain the increased crash risk reported in older adults

    A comparison of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to invasive electrocortical stimulation for sensorimotor mapping in pediatric patients

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    Localizing neurologic function within the brain remains a significant challenge in clinical neurosurgery. Invasive mapping with direct electrocortical stimulation currently is the clinical gold standard but is impractical in young or cognitively delayed patients who are unable to reliably perform tasks. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging non-invasively identifies resting state networks without the need for task performance, hence, is well suited to pediatric patients. We compared sensorimotor network localization by resting state fMRI to cortical stimulation sensory and motor mapping in 16 pediatric patients aged 3.1 to 18.6 years. All had medically refractory epilepsy that required invasive electrographic monitoring and stimulation mapping. The resting state fMRI data were analyzed using a previously trained machine learning classifier that has previously been evaluated in adults. We report comparable functional localization by resting state fMRI compared to stimulation mapping. These results provide strong evidence for the utility of resting state functional imaging in the localization of sensorimotor cortex across a wide range of pediatric patients

    Loss of intranetwork and internetwork resting state functional connections with Alzheimer\u27s disease progression

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    Alzheimer\u27s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Much is known concerning AD pathophysiology but our understanding of the disease at the systems level remains incomplete. Previous AD research has used resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI) to assess the integrity of functional networks within the brain. Most studies have focused on the default-mode network (DMN), a primary locus of AD pathology. However, other brain regions are inevitably affected with disease progression. We studied rs-fcMRI in five functionally defined brain networks within a large cohort of human participants of either gender (n = 510) that ranged in AD severity from unaffected [clinical dementia rating (CDR) 0] to very mild (CDR 0.5) to mild (CDR 1). We observed loss of correlations within not only the DMN but other networks at CDR 0.5. Within the salience network (SAL), increases were seen between CDR 0 and CDR 0.5. However, at CDR 1, all networks, including SAL, exhibited reduced correlations. Specific networks were preferentially affected at certain CDR stages. In addition, cross-network relations were consistently lost with increasing AD severity. Our results demonstrate that AD is associated with widespread loss of both intranetwork and internetwork correlations. These results provide insight into AD pathophysiology and reinforce an integrative view of the brain\u27s functional organization