1,154 research outputs found

    Simulations of CMOS pixel sensors with a small collection electrode, improved for a faster charge collection and increased radiation tolerance

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    CMOS pixel sensors with a small collection electrode combine the advantages of a small sensor capacitance with the advantages of a fully monolithic design. The small sensor capacitance results in a large ratio of signal-to-noise and a low analogue power consumption, while the monolithic design reduces the material budget, cost and production effort. However, the low electric field in the pixel corners of such sensors results in an increased charge collection time, that makes a fully efficient operation after irradiation and a timing resolution in the order of nanoseconds challenging for pixel sizes larger than approximately forty micrometers. This paper presents the development of concepts of CMOS sensors with a small collection electrode to overcome these limitations, using three-dimensional Technology Computer Aided Design simulations. The studied design uses a 0.18 micrometer process implemented on a high-resistivity epitaxial layer.Comment: Proceedings of the PIXEL 2018 Worksho

    Combining TCAD and Monte Carlo Methods to Simulate CMOS Pixel Sensors with a Small Collection Electrode using the Allpix Squared Framework

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    Combining electrostatic field simulations with Monte Carlo methods enables realistic modeling of the detector response for novel monolithic silicon detectors with strongly non-linear electric fields. Both the precise field description and the inclusion of Landau fluctuations and production of secondary particles in the sensor are crucial ingredients for the understanding and reproduction of detector characteristics. In this paper, a CMOS pixel sensor with small collection electrode design, implemented in a high-resistivity epitaxial layer, is simulated by integrating a detailed electric field model from finite element TCAD into a Monte Carlo based simulation with the Allpix2^2 framework. The simulation results are compared to data recorded in test-beam measurements and very good agreement is found for various quantities such as cluster size, spatial resolution and efficiency. Furthermore, the observables are studied as a function of the intra-pixel incidence position to enable a detailed comparison with the detector behavior observed in data. The validation of such simulations is fundamental for modeling the detector response and for predicting the performance of future prototype designs. Moreover, visualization plots extracted from the charge carrier drift model of the framework can aid in understanding the charge propagation behavior in different regions of the sensor.Comment: 15 pages, 18 figure

    Test-beam Performance Results of the FASTPIX Sub-Nanosecond CMOS Pixel Sensor Demonstrator

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    Within the ATTRACT FASTPIX project, a monolithic pixel sensor demonstrator chip has been developed in a modified 180 nm CMOS imaging process technology, targeting sub-nanosecond timing precision for single ionising particles. It features a small collection electrode design on a 25 micrometers-thick epitaxial layer and contains 32 mini matrices of 68 hexagonal pixels each, with pixel pitches ranging from 8.66 to 20 micrometers. Four pixels are transmitting an analog output signal and 64 are transmitting binary hit information. Various design variations are explored, aiming at accelerating the charge collection and making the timing of the charge collection more uniform over the pixel area. Signal treatment of the analog waveforms, as well as reconstruction of digital position, time and charge information, is carried out off-chip. This contribution introduces the design of the sensor and readout system and presents performance results for various pixel designs achieved in recent test beam measurements with external tracking and timing reference detectors. A time resolution below 150 ps is obtained at full efficiency for all pixel pitches.Comment: 14 pages, 15 figures, submitted to NIMA (special issue for ULITIMA 2023 conference

    Comparison of small collection electrode CMOS pixel sensors with partial and full lateral depletion of the high-resistivity epitaxial layer

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    Large area silicon pixel trackers are currently under development for the High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC detectors. They are also foreseen for the detectors proposed for the future high energy Compact Linear Collider CLIC. For the CLIC tracker a single hit resolution of 7 ÎŒm, a timing resolution of a few nanoseconds and a material budget of 1–2 % of radiation length per detection layer are required. Integrated CMOS technologies are promising candidates to reduce the cost, facilitate the production and to achieve a low material budget. CMOS sensors with a small size of the collection electrode benefit from a small sensor capacitance, resulting in a large signal to noise ratio and a low power consumption. The Investigator is a test-chip developed for the ALICE Inner Tracking System upgrade, implemented in a 180 nm CMOS process with a small collection electrode on a high resistivity epitaxial layer. The Investigator has been produced in different process variants: the standard process and a modified process, where an additional N-layer has been inserted to obtain full lateral depletion. This paper presents a comparison of test-beam results for both process variants, focuses on spatial and timing resolution as well as efficiency measurements

    Charge collection and efficiency measurements of the TJ-Monopix2 DMAPS in 180 \,nm CMOS technology

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    Monolithic CMOS pixel detectors have emerged as competitive contenders in the field of high-energy particle physics detectors. By utilizing commercial processes they offer high-volume production of such detectors. A series of prototypes has been designed in a 180 \,nm Tower process with depletion of the sensor material and a column-drain readout architecture. The latest iteration, TJ-Monopix2, features a large 2 \,cm x 2 \,cm matrix consisting of 512 x 512 pixels with 33.04 \,um pitch. A small collection electrode design aims at low power consumption and low noise while the radiation tolerance for high-energy particle detector applications needs extra attention. With a goal to reach radiation tolerance to levels of 1015 1 10^{15}\,1\,MeV neq _\text{eq}\,cm−2^{-2} of NIEL damage a modification of the standard process has been implemented by adding a low-dosed n-type silicon implant across the pixel in order to allow for homogeneous depletion of the sensor volume. Recent lab measurements and beam tests were conducted for unirradiated modules to study electrical characteristics and hit detection efficiency.Comment: Conference proceedings for PIXEL2022 conference, submitted to Po

    Transient Monte Carlo Simulations for the Optimisation and Characterisation of Monolithic Silicon Sensors

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    An ever-increasing demand for high-performance silicon sensors requires complex sensor designs that are challenging to simulate and model. The combination of electrostatic finite element simulations with a transient Monte Carlo approach provides simultaneous access to precise sensor modelling and high statistics. The high simulation statistics enable the inclusion of Landau fluctuations and production of secondary particles, which offers a realistic simulation scenario. The transient simulation approach is an important tool to achieve an accurate time-resolved description of the sensor, which is crucial in the face of novel detector prototypes with increasingly precise timing capabilities. The simulated time resolution as a function of operating parameters as well as the full transient pulse can be monitored and assessed, which offers a new perspective on the optimisation and characterisation of silicon sensors. In this paper, a combination of electrostatic finite-element simulations using 3D TCAD and transient Monte Carlo simulations with the Allpix Squared framework are presented for a monolithic CMOS pixel sensor with a small collection diode, that is characterised by a highly inhomogeneous, complex electric field. The results are compared to transient 3D TCAD simulations that offer a precise simulation of the transient behaviour but long computation times. Additionally, the simulations are benchmarked against test-beam data and good agreement is found for the performance parameters over a wide range of different operation conditions

    Developing a Monolithic Silicon Sensor in a 65 nm CMOS Imaging Technology for Future Lepton Collider Vertex Detectors

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    Monolithic CMOS sensors in a 65 nm imaging technology are being investigated by the CERN EP Strategic R&D Programme on Technologies for Future Experiments for an application in particle physics. The appeal of monolithic detectors lies in the fact that both sensor volume and readout electronics are integrated in the same silicon wafer, providing a reduction in production effort, costs and scattering material. The Tangerine Project WP1 at DESY participates in the Strategic R&D Programme and is focused on the development of a monolithic active pixel sensor with a time and spatial resolution compatible with the requirements for a future lepton collider vertex detector. By fulfilling these requirements, the Tangerine detector is suitable as well to be used as telescope planes for the DESY-II Test Beam facility. The project comprises all aspects of sensor development, from the electronics engineering and the sensor design using simulations, to laboratory and test beam investigations of prototypes. Generic TCAD Device and Monte-Carlo simulations are used to establish an understanding of the technology and provide important insight into performance parameters of the sensor. Testing prototypes in laboratory and test beam facilities allows for the characterization of their response to different conditions. By combining results from all these studies it is possible to optimize the sensor layout. This contribution presents results from generic TCAD and Monte-Carlo simulations, and measurements performed with test chips of the first sensor submission.Comment: 7 pages, 8 figures, submitted to IEEE Xplore as conference record for 2022 IEEE NSS/MIC/RTS

    R&D Paths of Pixel Detectors for Vertex Tracking and Radiation Imaging

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    This report reviews current trends in the R&D of semiconductor pixellated sensors for vertex tracking and radiation imaging. It identifies requirements of future HEP experiments at colliders, needed technological breakthroughs and highlights the relation to radiation detection and imaging applications in other fields of science.Comment: 17 pages, 2 figures, submitted to the European Strategy Preparatory Grou

    Performance of the MALTA Telescope

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    MALTA is part of the Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel sensors designed in Tower 180nm CMOS imaging technology. A custom telescope with six MALTA planes has been developed for test beam campaigns at SPS, CERN, with the ability to host several devices under test. The telescope system has a dedicated custom readout, online monitoring integrated into DAQ with realtime hit map, time distribution and event hit multiplicity. It hosts a dedicated fully configurable trigger system enabling to trigger on coincidence between telescope planes and timing reference from a scintillator. The excellent time resolution performance allows for fast track reconstruction, due to the possibility to retain a low hit multiplicity per event which reduces the combinatorics. This paper reviews the architecture of the system and its performance during the 2021 and 2022 test beam campaign at the SPS North Area