48 research outputs found

    La Famiglia come sistema di memorie e lo sviluppo del Sé

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    Scopo di questo contributo è quello di mostrare il ruolo svolto dalla memoria autobiografica nei rapporti tra genitore e figlio. Dopo avere descritto le principali componenti della memoria autobiografica, viene affrontato il rapporto con la narrazione autobiografica e delineate le trasformazioni che la memoria autobiografica subisce quando diventa narrazione autobiografica. Vengono prodotti alcuni esempi di narrazioni allo scopo di mostrare la loro importanza sullo sviluppo del Sé e il loro legame col sistema di memorie familiare. Questa discussione porta alla conclusione che la memoria autobiografica viene organizzata attraverso la narrazione autobiografica la quale a sua volta ha bisogno di un sistema di memoria familiare per svilupparsi

    The evaluative component in children’s narratives: Comparison of two intervention procedures

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    International audienceLes études sur le développement des compétences narratives utilisant une interaction focalisée sur les causes des événements ont montré des effets positifs sur le développement cognitif et linguistique des enfants, notamment pour ce qui concerne le discours de type ‘évaluatif’ (expression d’explications et des états mentaux des personnages d’une historie) . En partant de l’idée que l’interaction entre pairs et la motivation d’expliciter l’histoire à un interlocuteur plus jeune pourraient aider davantage l’enfant (Vygotskij, 1934), ce travail se propose de comparer la conversation sur les causes (CosCau) à l’interaction entre pairs (INTP) - chez des enfants de 6 à 8 ans. Pour ce faire, on a comparé les récits de l’histoire de la pierre sur le chemin (Veneziano et Hudelot, 2005) de deux groupes d’enfants exposés soit à procédure CosCau soit à la procédure INTP, où l’enfant interagit avec une marionnette représentant un enfant qui ne connait pas l’histoire. Les récits ont été récoltés avant et après l’intervention, ainsi qu’une semaine après afin de vérifier la stabilité et la généralisation des éventuels effets de l’intervention. Les résultats confirment l’efficacité de la procédure CosCau : les enfants progressent significativement après l’intervention, les progrès étant stables et généralisables une semaine après. Les enfants de la condition INTP présentent par contre une cohérence narrative moindre immédiatement après (peut-être due à un effet de ‘modeling’), qui s’améliore toutefois une semaine après. Ces résultats soulignent la nécessité d’approfondir la réflexion sur les effets seulement retardés de l’interaction mise en place ici entre enfants avec différents états de connaissance

    About Linda Again: How Narratives and Group Reasoning Can Influence Conjunction Fallacy

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    Conjunction fallacy (together with other systematic reasoning errors) is usually explained in terms of the dual process theory of reasoning: Biases should be ascribed to fast and automatic processes, whereas slow and deliberative processes are responsible of producing answers that are correct with respect of normative criterion. The dual process theory is related to Bruner’s distinction between narrative and paradigmatic thought: Both modes of thought can be characterized by the two different processes of reasoning. In this paper, we explore the role of Bruner’s mode of thought manipulating also the difference between group vs individual reasoning. We observed that the narrative strategy of response induces more wrong answers. However, narrative-based strategies have higher effectiveness in the case of group reasoning. Our results suggest that narrative reasoning and group reasoning may induce violations of the conjunction rule when acceptable by the verisimilitude of the story. Five models are also presented in order to predict answer correctness and strategy of reasoning using a text analysis software

    De la deconstrucción de la identidad de género a la deconstrucción de la identidad sexual

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    A través de esta comunicación queremos poner de manifiesto las similitudes entre las definiciones de identidad de género y de identidad sexual en tanto que construcciones altamente normativas que nacen en el contexto socio-histórico-cultural. Las críticas feministas y constructivistas al concepto de identidad de género nos resultan útiles a la hora de analizar y deconstruir el de identidad sexual que en este trabajo de investigación se presenta no como expresión de un self esencial (y por lo tanto ahistórico e inmutable) sino como construcción que se da en el contexto histórico-cultural. En nuestro trabajo de investigación proponemos un acercamiento narrativo al fenómeno de la asunción de la identidad lésbica y de su incorporación en la más general identidad personal a través del estudio de las historias de vida de 8 mujeres lesbianas. Las narraciones autobiográficas recogidas se han analizado utilizando una versión adaptada de los indicadores del self de Bruner (1997). El análisis narrativo así realizado nos ha ofrecido la posibilidad de apreciar los cambios cognitivos, emocionales y conductuales que nuestras entrevistadas han experimentado a lo largo del proceso y que se reflejan en sus narraciones, así como el proceso activo de deconstrucción de los significados estigmatizados asociados a la identidad homosexual

    I bambini raccontano e interpretano le storie familiari

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    Alcuni studiosi che si occupano di narrazioni sostengono che le storie familiari contribuiscono alla definizione delle identità individuali e familiari, ma anche al mantenimento dei legami sociali ed emotivi oltre che al benessere ed alla resilienza individuale. Gli Autori presentano una ricerca condotta su bambini di quarta e quinta elementare e di scuola media a cui è stato chiesto di scrivere una storia familiare e, al termine, di rispondere ad un sistema standard di domande con cui veniva valutata la comprensione del significato della storia. La riflessione sui contenuti delle storie e sulla loro interpretazione sembra suggerire che le storie familiari raccontano ciò che è accaduto nel passato, ma forniscono anche informazioni sulla vita emozionale di ciascuna famiglia e, altre volte, trasmettono insegnamenti che serviranno per prevedere e affrontare le esperienze future

    Conflict Interpretation: A Comparison of Canadian and Italian Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Youth

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    The impact of persistent aggression on youths’ social and psychological well being is well documented. What is less well understood is the shaping effect of cultural differences on how such conflict is experienced and responded to. In this study, we asked youth to write a story about a conflict they experienced and describe their associated feelings. Participants included Canadian and Italian girls and boys from grades 4 and 7 who were rated by their teachers as either aggressive or non-aggressive. Results indicated that although there were no significant main effects for behavioural group or country in the description of the conflict, significant differences appeared in participants’ descriptions of associated feelings. Specifically, non-aggressive participants were significantly better at generating psychological interpretions of actors’ intentions and experienced significantly more congruent associated feelings. Additionally, Canadian participants were significantly better than Italian participants in generating psychological interpretation of conflicts

    Cancer and Pregnancy: becoming parents after an oncological diagnosis in women

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    The issue of cancer and pregnancy will be increasingly topical giving the rising trend of women diagnosed with cancer during childbearing period. Although oncological progress has allowed women who receive cancer diagnosis before or during pregnancy to satisfy their desire for maternity and to carry on gestation, there is still few awareness. In this chapter we present our research project and results carry out to date. The aim is to better understand challenges of women who experience pregnancy after or during cancer compared with non-oncological sample. We focus on the impact of cancer in the construction of prenatal attachment and related psychological aspects. We study resilience considered as a protective factor in the construction of mother-fetus relationship. Then, we present the results of a qualitative study conducted in order to have a deeper understanding of the psychological dynamics that help women with cancer diagnosis to develop their maternal identity. We explore the topic of breastfeeding in women with cancer history, investigating how the feeding method is related to mother’s mood states. Finally, we present the results about the cortisol concentration measurement during pregnancy. Our results show how it is very important to give women with oncological diagnosis the adequate support during puerperium

    Protect, promote and support: a warm chain of breastfeeding for oncological women\u2014results from a survey of young Italian cancer mothers

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    The objective of this article was to analyse the experience of breastfeeding in new mothers with a history of cancer compared to women without a cancer diagnosis. First, we explored the impact of the cancer diagnosis on the breastfeeding choice. Second, we evaluated the relationship between different feeding methods and the mother\u2019s mood states in women with and without a history of cancer. The sample was composed of 74 mothers divided into two groups: 34 with a cancer history (clinical sample) and 40 without a cancer diagnosis (control group). Participants were requested to complete a questionnaire three months after childbirth which assessed: socio-demographic and clinical data, feeding modes (breastfeeding, formula and mixed feeding) and the profile of mood states (POMS). Results showed that women in the clinical group breastfeed significantly less and use formula more than those in the control group. Moreover, in the clinical group, women who breastfeed feel reported higher levels of confusion (according to POMS) than mothers who bottle-feed or use a mixed feeding method. On the contrary, in the control sample, women who breastfeed feel significantly more vigorous than puerperae who bottle-feed or use mixed methods according to POMS. Our findings suggest the need for a specific warm chain of support and the development of guidelines with clear and specific information for women with a cancer diagnosis in order to reduce their confusion around breastfeeding

    Emozioni e memoria autobiografica: il ruolo della narrazione nel loro cambiamento

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    emozioni e memoria autobiografic
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