268,247 research outputs found

    Photovoltaics as a terrestrial energy source. Volume 2: System value

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    Assumptions and techniques employed by the electric utility industry and other electricity planners to make estimates of the future value of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected with U.S. electric utilities were examined. Existing estimates of PV value and their interpretation and limitations are discussed. PV value is defined as the marginal private savings accruing to potential PV owners. For utility-owned PV systems, these values are shown to be the after-tax savings in conventional fuel and capacity displaced by the PV output. For non-utility-owned (distributed) systems, the utility's savings in fuel and capacity must first be translated through the electric rate structure (prices) to the potential PV system owner. Base-case estimates of the average value of PV systems to U.S. utilities are presented. The relationship of these results to the PV Program price goals and current energy policy is discussed; the usefulness of PV output quantity goals is also reviewed

    Domain State Occurring in the de Haas-van Alphen Effect in Silver

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    Hysteresis has been observed in de Haas-van Alphen measurements of the Condon domains in silver, and it shows the first-order nature of the transition to the domain state. The hysteresis, and thus the first-order nature, is manifested in a nonlinear effect where a double-valued response of the amplitude with the applied external field is observed

    Analysis of Full-Test tools and their limitations as applied to terminal junction blocks

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    Discovery of unlocked contacts in Deutsch Block terminal junctions in Solid Rocket Booster flight hardware prompted an investigation into pull test techniques to help insure against possible failures. Internal frictional forces between socket and pin and between wire and grommet were examined. Pull test force must be greater than internal friction yet less than the crimp strength of the pin or socket. For this reason, a 100 percent accurate test is impossible. Test tools were evaluated. Available tools are adequate for pull testing

    Historical evidence of importance to the industrialization of flat-plate silicon photovoltaic systems. Volume 1: Executive summary

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    An analysis is given of the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project plans for the industrialization of new production technologies expected to be forthcoming as a result of the project's technology development efforts. In particular, LSSA's mandate to insure an annual production capability of 500 MW peak for the photovoltaic supply industry by 1986 is critically examined. The examination focuses on one of the concerns behind this goal -- timely development of industrial capacity to supply anticipated demand. Some of the conclusions include: (1) construction of small-scale pilot plants should be undertaken only for purposes of technology development; (2) large-scale demonstrations should be undertaken only when the technology is well in hand; (3) commercial-scale production should be left to the private sector; (4) the 500-MW annual output goal should be shifted to Program Headquarters

    Magnetohydrodynamic power generation

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    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generation is a concise summary of MHD theory, history, and future trends. Results of the major international MHD research projects are discussed. Data from MHD research is included. Economics of initial and operating costs are considered

    Development of a simplified optical technique for the simultaneous measurement of particle size distribution and velocity

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    Existing techniques were surveyed, an experimental procedure was developed, a laboratory test model was fabricated, limited data were recovered for proof of principle, and the relationship between particle size distribution and amplitude measurements was illustrated in an effort to develop a low cost, simplified optical technique for measuring particle size distributions and velocities in fluidized bed combustors and gasifiers. A He-Ne laser illuminated Rochi Rulings (range 10 to 500 lines per inch). Various samples of known particle size distributions were passed through the fringe pattern produced by the rulings. A photomultiplier tube converted light from the fringe volume to an electrical signal which was recorded using an oscilloscope and camera. The signal amplitudes were correlated against the known particle size distributions. The correlation holds true for various samples

    Optimized bolted joint

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    A method is disclosed for joining segments of the skin of an aircraft. The ends of the skin are positioned in close proximity or abutt each other. The skin is of constant thickness throughout the joint and is sandwiched between splice plates, which taper in thickness from the last to the first bolt rows in order to reduce the stiffness of the splice plate and thereby reduce the load transfer at the location where bypass loads are the highest

    A New Approach to Fibrous Composite Laminate Strength Prediction

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    A method of predicting the strength of cross-plied fibrous composite laminates is based on expressing the classical maximum-shear-stress failure criterion for ductile metals in terms of strains. Starting with such a formulation for classical isotropic materials, the derivation is extended to orthotropic materials having a longitudinal axis of symmetry, to represent the fibers in a unidirectional composite lamina. The only modification needed to represent those same fibers with properties normalized to the lamina rather than fiber is a change in axial modulus. A mirror image is added to the strain-based lamina failure criterion for fiber-dominated failures to reflect the cutoffs due to the presence of orthogonal fibers. It is found that the combined failure envelope is now identical with the well-known maximum-strain failure model in the tension-tension and compression-compression quadrants but is truncated in the shear quadrants. The successive application of this simple failure model for fibers in the 0/90 degree and +/- 45 degree orientations, in turn, is shown to be the necessary and sufficient characterization of the fiber-dominated failures of laminates made from fibers having the same tensile and compressive strengths. When one such strength is greater than the other, the failure envelope is appropriately truncated for the lesser direct strain. The shear-failure cutoffs are now based on the higher axial strain to failure since they occur at lower strains than and are usually not affected by such mechanisms as microbuckling. Premature matrix failures can also be covered by appropriately truncating the fiber failure envelope. Matrix failures are excluded from consideration for conventional fiber/polymer composites but the additional features needed for a more rigorous analysis of exotic materials are covered. The new failure envelope is compared with published biaxial test data. The theory is developed for unnotched laminates but is easily shrunk to incorporate reductions to allow for bolt holes, cutouts, reduced compressive strength after impact, and the like
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