139 research outputs found

    Analysis of dependence among size, rate and duration in internet flows

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    In this paper we examine rigorously the evidence for dependence among data size, transfer rate and duration in Internet flows. We emphasize two statistical approaches for studying dependence, including Pearson's correlation coefficient and the extremal dependence analysis method. We apply these methods to large data sets of packet traces from three networks. Our major results show that Pearson's correlation coefficients between size and duration are much smaller than one might expect. We also find that correlation coefficients between size and rate are generally small and can be strongly affected by applying thresholds to size or duration. Based on Transmission Control Protocol connection startup mechanisms, we argue that thresholds on size should be more useful than thresholds on duration in the analysis of correlations. Using extremal dependence analysis, we draw a similar conclusion, finding remarkable independence for extremal values of size and rate.Comment: Published in at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/09-AOAS268 the Annals of Applied Statistics (http://www.imstat.org/aoas/) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org

    Long-range dependence in a changing Internet traffic mix

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    This paper provides a deep analysis of long-range dependence in a continually evolving Internet traffic mix by employing a number of recently developed statistical methods. Our study considers time-of-day, day-of-week, and cross-year variations in the traffic on an Internet link. Surprisingly large and consistent differences in the packet-count time series were observed between data from 2002 and 2003. A careful examination, based on stratifying the data according to protocol, revealed that the large difference was driven by a single UDP application that was not present in 2002. Another result was that the observed large differences between the two years showed up only in packet-count time series, and not in byte counts (while conventional wisdom suggests that these should be similar). We also found and analyzed several of the time series that exhibited more “bursty” characteristics than could be modeled as Fractional Gaussian Noise. The paper also shows how modern statistical tools can be used to study long-range dependence and non-stationarity in Internet traffic data

    Association of the D2 Dopamine Receptor Third Cytoplasmic Loop with Spinophilin, a Protein Phosphatase-1-interacting Protein

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    Signaling through D2 class dopamine receptors is crucial to correct brain development and function, and dysfunction of this system is implicated in major neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. To investigate potential novel mechanisms of D2 receptor regulation, the third cytoplasmic loop of the D2 dopamine receptor was used to screen a rat hippocampal yeast two-hybrid library. Spinophilin, a recently characterized F-actin and protein phosphatase-1-binding protein with a single PDZ domain was identified as a protein that specifically associates with this region of D2 receptors. A direct interaction between spinophilin and the D2 receptor was confirmed in vitro using recombinant fusion proteins. The portion of spinophilin responsible for interacting with the D2 third cytoplasmic loop was narrowed to a region that does not include the actin-binding domain, the PDZ domain, or the coiled-coil. This region is distinct from the site of interaction with protein phosphatase-1, and both D2 receptors and protein phosphatase-1 may bind spinophilin at the same time. The interaction is not mediated via the unique 29-amino acid insert in D2long; both D2long and D2short third cytoplasmic loops interact with spinophilin in vitro and in yeast two-hybrid assays. Expression of D2 receptors containing an extracellular hemagglutinin epitope in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells results in co-localization of receptor and endogenous spinophilin as determined by immunocytochemistry using antibodies directed against spinophilin and the HA tag. We hypothesize that spinophilin is important for establishing a signaling complex for dopaminergic neurotransmission through D2 receptors by linking receptors to downstream signaling molecules and the actin cytoskeleton

    Transgenerational Effects of Parental Larval Diet on Offspring Development Time, Adult Body Size and Pathogen Resistance in Drosophila melanogaster

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    Environmental conditions experienced by parents are increasingly recognized to affect offspring performance. We set out to investigate the effect of parental larval diet on offspring development time, adult body size and adult resistance to the bacterium Serratia marcescens in Drosophila melanogaster. Flies for the parental generation were raised on either poor or standard diet and then mated in the four possible sex-by-parental diet crosses. Females that were raised on poor food produced larger offspring than females that were raised on standard food. Furthermore, male progeny sired by fathers that were raised on poor food were larger than male progeny sired by males raised on standard food. Development times were shortest for offspring whose one parent (mother or the father) was raised on standard and the other parent on poor food and longest for offspring whose parents both were raised on poor food. No evidence for transgenerational effects of parental diet on offspring disease resistance was found. Although paternal effects have been previously demonstrated in D. melanogaster, no earlier studies have investigated male-mediated transgenerational effects of diet in this species. The results highlight the importance of not only considering the relative contribution each parental sex has on progeny performance but also the combined effects that the two sexes may have on offspring performance

    Safety and immunogenicity of the two-dose heterologous Ad26.ZEBOV and MVA-BN-Filo Ebola vaccine regimen in children in Sierra Leone: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial

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    Background—Children account for a substantial proportion of cases and deaths from Ebola virus disease. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of a two-dose heterologous vaccine regimen, comprising the adenovirus type 26 vector-based vaccine encoding the Ebola virus glycoprotein (Ad26.ZEBOV) and the modified vaccinia Ankara vectorbased vaccine, encoding glycoproteins from the Ebola virus, Sudan virus, and Marburg virus, and the nucleoprotein from the Tai Forest virus (MVA-BN-Filo), in a paediatric population in Sierra Leone. Methods—This randomised, double-blind, controlled trial was done at three clinics in Kambia district, Sierra Leone. Healthy children and adolescents aged 1–17 years were enrolled in three age cohorts (12–17 years, 4–11 years, and 1–3 years) and randomly assigned (3:1), via computer-generated block randomisation (block size of eight), to receive an intramuscular injection of either Ad26.ZEBOV (5 × 1010 viral particles; first dose) followed by MVA-BN-Filo (1 × 108 infectious units; second dose) on day 57 (Ebola vaccine group), or a single dose of meningococcal quadrivalent (serogroups A, C, W135, and Y) conjugate vaccine (MenACWY; first dose) followed by placebo (second dose) on day 57 (control group). Study team personnel (except for those with primary responsibility for study vaccine preparation), participants, and their parents or guardians were masked to study vaccine allocation. The primary outcome was safety, measured as the occurrence of solicited local and systemic adverse symptoms during 7 days after each vaccination, unsolicited systemic adverse events during 28 days after each vaccination, abnormal laboratory results during the study period, and serious adverse events or immediate reportable events throughout the study period. The secondary outcome was immunogenicity (humoral immune response), measured as the concentration of Ebola virus glycoprotein-specific binding antibodies at 21 days after the second dose. The primary outcome was assessed in all participants who had received at least one dose of study vaccine and had available reactogenicity data, and immunogenicity was assessed in all participants who had received both vaccinations within the protocol-defined time window, had at least one evaluable post-vaccination sample, and had no major protocol deviations that could have influenced the immune response. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02509494. Findings—From April 4, 2017, to July 5, 2018, 576 eligible children or adolescents (192 in each of the three age cohorts) were enrolled and randomly assigned. The most common solicited local adverse event during the 7 days after the first and second dose was injection-site pain in all age groups, with frequencies ranging from 0% (none of 48) of children aged 1–3 years after placebo injection to 21% (30 of 144) of children aged 4–11 years after Ad26.ZEBOV vaccination. The most frequently observed solicited systemic adverse event during the 7 days was headache in the 12–17 years and 4–11 years age cohorts after the first and second dose, and pyrexia in the 1–3 years age cohort after the first and second dose. The most frequent unsolicited adverse event after the first and second dose vaccinations was malaria in all age cohorts, irrespective of the vaccine types. Following vaccination with MenACWY, severe thrombocytopaenia was observed in one participant aged 3 years. No other clinically significant laboratory abnormalities were observed in other study participants, and no serious adverse events related to the Ebola vaccine regimen were reported. There were no treatment-related deaths. Ebola virus glycoprotein-specific binding antibody responses at 21 days after the second dose of the Ebola virus vaccine regimen were observed in 131 (98%) of 134 children aged 12–17 years (9929 ELISA units [EU]/mL [95% CI 8172–12 064]), in 119 (99%) of 120 aged 4–11 years (10 212 EU/mL [8419–12 388]), and in 118 (98%) of 121 aged 1–3 years (22 568 EU/mL [18 426–27 642]). Interpretation—The Ad26.ZEBOV and MVA-BN-Filo Ebola vaccine regimen was well tolerated with no safety concerns in children aged 1–17 years, and induced robust humoral immune responses, suggesting suitability of this regimen for Ebola virus disease prophylaxis in children

    Evolution and pathology in Chagas disease: a review

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