3,740 research outputs found

    The psychological contract in apprenticeships and traineeships : differing perceptions

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    As with any contract of employment, the mutual expectations of the employer and the apprentice/trainee are very important. Apprenticeships and traineeships have greater expectations than other employment contracts of employment because of the training component of the contract. This paper reports on some of the findings of a major NCVER-funded national project examining mutual expectations in apprenticeships and traineeships through the concept of the psychological contract. The paper focuses on the differences between employers and apprentices/trainees, in the expectations each party has of the other and in the extent to which the expectations are perceived to have been met.<br /

    The Role of Parental Self-Efficacy, Hardiness, Parenting Stress In Predicting Parenting Behaviors

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    Given that there is a link between parenting practices and child developmental outcomes, it is important to explore the existence of variables that may influence the success of implementing parenting practices. Therefore, the current study aimed to understand how parental cognitions influence parenting practices by exploring the mediational influence of parenting stress. Parenting self-efficacy is an important cognitive variable to study as it has been related to positive parenting practices (Coleman & Karraker, 1997; Jones & Prinz, 2005) and considered a reliable predictor of parenting stress (Raikes & Thompson, 2005). Hardiness is also an important cognitive variable to examine as it is related to lower levels of psychological distress (Beasley, Thompson, & Davidson, 2002), and positively related to adjustment and well-being (Maddi, Brow, Khoshaba, & Vaitkus, 2006; Orr & Westman, 1990). While hardiness has not been directly linked to parenting practices, it has been negatively associated with stress in nonparent populations, therefore it is hypothesized that it may also be positively associated with parenting practices and negatively related to parenting stress. Given that there is some evidence that suggests that parenting stress serves as a mediator between parenting variables (i.e., social support and depressive symptomology) and parenting practices (Bonds, Gondoli, Sturge-Apple, & Salem, , 2002; Gerdes, Hoza, Arnold, Pelham, Swanson, Wigal,& Jenson ., 2007), the current study examined a model of parenting that explores the mediational role of parenting stress in the relationships between parental cognitions (parenting self-efficacy and hardiness) and parenting behaviors. Results demonstrated that parenting stress partially mediated the relationships between the parental cognitions, hardiness and parenting self-efficacy, and parenting practices. Also, results demonstrated that the mediation model significantly differed across parent gender as predicted

    The expansion and contraction of the apprenticeship system in Australia, 1985-2020

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    This paper chronicles and analyses the expansion and contraction of the Australian apprenticeship system from 1985 to 2020. The system expanded from a small number of occupations, mainly in craft and manufacturing areas, to include many other occupations, notably in the different types of service sectors. The expansion was achieved primarily through a new type of apprenticeship, known as a traineeship, to augment the existing more traditional apprenticeships. Since 2012, the system has contracted considerably, and the participation rate of women has been affected disproportionately. The period of expansion of the system was book-ended by two major government-instigated documents, in 1985 and 2011. In 1985 a Parliamentary Committee of Inquiry into Labour Market Programs proposed the introduction of traineeships, and in 2011 an Expert Panel on Apprenticeships sought to reduce numbers through the application of specific criteria for government support, which primarily affected the occupations served by traineeships. Two sources of evidence are used to examine the expansion and contraction of the apprenticeship system: data from the national apprenticeship statistics collection maintained by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) and key government reports over the 35 years. A brief overview of COVID-19-related developments in 2020 is included. © 2021 The Vocational Aspect of Education Ltd

    Apprenticeship management at national and company levels: Research based ‘good practice’ principles

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    HRD professionals are often involved closely with apprenticeship systems. Apprenticeships operate within companies but are almost always linked to a national apprenticeship system which provides legislation and regulation around aspects of apprenticeship. Most countries around the world have a formal apprenticeship system, although systems vary widely in their nature, their relative size and their sophistication. The paper aims to provide a contribution to both policy and practice. It draws together and analyses three pieces of research undertaken between 2007 and 2013 by the author: one international comparative study on national apprenticeship systems, and two Australian projects on the ways in which companies manage their apprentices. The paper shows how the findings about good practice in apprenticeship management can be used at both national and company levels. The international study was funded by the International Labour Organization and the World Bank, and the Australian studies were funded by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research

    Intermediary organizations in apprenticeship systems

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    Intermediary organizations in apprenticeships are those which act on behalf of, link, or mediate between the main parties - apprentices and employers. An intermediary organization in apprenticeship systems is thus one that undertakes one or more of the following activities: employs apprentices as a third-party employer; trains apprentices as part of a specific arrangement with groups of employers; or undertakes other apprentice support activities on behalf of an employer or a specified group of employers. This discussion paper highlights different ways of classifying intermediary organizations, provides examples of different types of intermediary organisations and examines the different roles they can play to support the effective operation of apprenticeship systems. In particular, the report includes brief case studies of intermediary organisations in Australia, India, England

    Apprenticeships and ‘future work’ : are we ready?

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    The paper evaluates the readiness of apprenticeship systems to cope with five major developments affecting the future of work. The institution of apprenticeship has evolved over time in all countries, gradually adapting to changes in industrial processes, the economy, the labour market and education systems. This paper suggests, however, that recent changes in the economy and the labour market, and their concomitant effects on the likely future of work, have the potential to disrupt apprenticeship systems quite radically worldwide, and/or to make them less relevant in the 21st century. The paper draws on data from recent Australian and international research projects undertaken by the author, as well as the author’s engagement in Australian government exercises to discuss the future of apprenticeships. The research found that adaptations of systems and processes were being undertaken at company level and by stakeholders such as trade union or employer peak bodies. They were less frequently apparent, however, in government policy. The paper analyses the data to produce a framework of readiness for ‘future work’, but also queries whether adaptation of apprenticeship systems is necessarily desirable in all instances. Although the presence of multiple stakeholders in the system has previously been viewed as a strength of the system, it can also make even minor changes difficult to implement. This could prove to be a major impediment to apprenticeship’s future or could be a means of preserving its essential features. © 2019 Brian Towers (BRITOW) and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.International Labour Organization, ILO with the assistance of the JP Morgan Chase Foundation

    Environmental sustainability practices : how adults learn

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    This paper reports on a small research project which investigated how adults in Australia learn about, and adapt to, developments in environmental sustainability practices. The project was based on two major changes in Australia in 2018: the cessation of free ‘singleuse’ plastic bags in many shops, particularly the major supermarket changes; and a gathering momentum towards more rigorous recycling practices. These changes, particularly the first, have affected the daily lives of most Australians. The research,consisting of a focus group, an expert interview and an on-line survey was undertaken with staff working for a regional university based at several campuses across the State of Victoria. This paper reports on preliminary results from the project, including analysis of the initial set of results from the survey. The results so far show that people learn from a range of sources, but some are much more common than others. Among media sources, two-thirds of the survey respondents learned from television, and around 40% from social media and the internet more generally; and among other sources, friends and family were information sources for two-thirds of people, while community information and public notices in shops or on litter bins were used by around half of the respondents. Some respondents were passionately engaged with the topic. The paper presents the responses to a number of key questions in the survey and analyses by age, and gender; and makes some suggestions about the effectiveness of learning sources on sustainability practices. The paper addresses the conference themes of formal and informal learning; adult political education; and community learning and engagement

    Teaching practices among college-based teachers of apprentices.

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    This paper provides a glimpse into current teaching practices among teachers working with traditional trade apprentices (‘trade teachers’) at Australian public and private providers of vocational education and training (VET), which are known as Registered Training Organisations (RTOs). The research is drawn from a major national study funded by the Australian Research Council, designed to examine the effects of different levels of vocational teachers’ qualifications upon the quality of VET teaching. For this paper, data from trade teachers, in different industry areas, was drawn out from a major survey of VET teachers/trainers, which included questions about their teaching approaches, as well as from focus groups of trade teachers

    Afterword : a fresh look at workplace learning for VET teachers

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    The expertise and professionalism of teachers is vital in vocational education and training (VET), as it is in any other education sector. As ‘dual professionals’, VET teachers need to keep abreast of their industry or discipline area as well as maintaining and improving their pedagogical skills and knowledge. VET workplaces (colleges and vocational schools) are important sites of learning for these matters. This paper draws together and analyses the findings from the other papers in this special issue, finding that VET workplaces contribute to teachers’ learning both as a part of pedagogical qualifications (in ‘teaching practice’ components) and as part of continuing professional learning. The paper draws on a previous theoretical model and the findings in the papers to propose a number of categories of workplace learning: learning that is taught, sought, wrought, caught, brought, and thought. These could be applied to any occupation. Finally, the contribution of teachers’ personal attributes to the extent and nature of their site-based learning is examined, using the data in the papers to develop further a previous model of VET teacher professionalism. © 2020, © 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
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