2,750 research outputs found

    Power and Practice in Academic Library Materials Selection Paradigms

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    This article examines the theoretical and practical implications of three methods of materials acquisitions in an academic library. First, it evaluates how traditional collection development, electronic patron driven acquisitions (PDA) and other older forms of PDA affect materials storage, preservation, purchase speed and usage. Then this paper employs Foucault’s theories about power to discuss the ramifications of these acquisitions methods for librarians and three major user groups: faculty, graduate students and undergraduates. The article concludes that each method presents different practical and theoretical advantages and disadvantages

    Freedom of Speech and the Classification of True Threats

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    Challenges to Economic Resiliency and Performance: Measuring the Regional Impacts of Rurality and Space

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    It is commonly observed that there are inequalities found in economic growth, development, and performance between different regions. Because of this, it is vital for regional planners to have knowledge to which economic problems are present (Armstrong and Taylor, 2000; Martin, 2005). With such knowledge, planners are able to tailor and implement regional policies in an informed manner that is better suited to address economic problems. Found in this work are two studies that contextualize separate economic problems which have been extensively discussed within regional sciences and rural studies. The first study seeks to assess how a county’s degree of rurality affects its capacity to resist and rebound from economic shocks. Rurality is a variable that challenging to define, but is nonetheless important to understand because identifying how regions can be rural provides necessary context for the justification of policy intervention (Cloke and Edwards, 1986; Beynon et al., 2016). We use county-level data from a series of federal agencies over the period of 2011 through 2015 to statistically estimate and visualize an urban-rural landscape of New England. Using this measure, we further test to see if a county’s degree of rurality had an impact on its relative recovery speed in employment growth. Over the same period of 2011 to 2015, we test how these counties recovered from two years and beyond after the Great Recession. The findings suggest overall a county’s degree of rurality corresponded with slower levels of recovery in terms of employment in comparison to overall U.S. levels. The second study seeks to explain how spatial factors such as market access and geographical remoteness influences a region’s differential economic performance. While the discussion of factors contributing to economic performance is expansive for large areal units like nations, there is a need for more understanding on how factors that dampen economic performance at a granular level can influence the greater region’s performance (Porter, 2003; Agarwal et al., 2009). We use data from the Census Bureau, National Park Service, and Google Geocoding Service in the one-year period of 2016 to: (1) estimate economic output as a proxy for performance in a system of equations, and (2) to see how such performance differentiates across geographic space. To approach this problem, we used a novel method of extracting and translating geographic data into distance measures at the census tract level to investigate how spatial factors influence economic performance. Overall, the findings from our jointly estimated system of equations highlight that larger distances to market access and remoteness negatively influences economic performance at the census tract level. Similarly, higher levels in variables such as workplace disability and the old-age dependency ratio had other dampening impacts

    An Engineered Community Approach for Industrial Cultivation of Microalgae.

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    Although no species lives in isolation in nature, efforts to grow organisms for use in biotechnology have generally focused on a single-species approach, particularly where a product is required at high purity. In such scenarios, preventing the establishment of contaminants requires considerable effort that is economically justified. However, for some applications in biotechnology where the focus is on lower-margin biofuel production, axenic culture is not necessary, provided yields of the desired strain are unaffected by contaminants. In this article, we review what is known about interspecific interactions of natural algal communities, the dynamics of which are likely to parallel contamination in industrial systems. Furthermore, we discuss the opportunities to improve both yields and the stability of cultures by growing algae in multi-species consortia.EK acknowledges funding from the FP7 DEMA project (Reference number 309086). ASR received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013/ under REA grant agreement n¬į 317184.This is the accepted manuscript. This is a copy of an article published in Industrial Biotechnology ¬© 2014 [copyright Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.]; Industrial Biotechnology is available online at: http://online.liebertpub.com

    Extended Full Block S-Procedure for Distributed Control of Interconnected Systems

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    This paper proposes a novel method for distributed controller synthesis of homogeneous interconnected systems consisting of identical subsystems. The objective of the designed controller is to minimize the L2-gain of the performance channel. The proposed method is an extended formulation of the Full Block S-Procedure (FBSP) where we introduce an additional set of variables. This allows relaxing the block-diagonal structural assumptions on the Lyapunov and multiplier matrices required for distributed control design, which reduces conservatism w.r.t most existing approaches. We show how to decompose the proposed extended FBSP into small synthesis conditions, of the size of one individual subsystem

    The physicochemical characterisation of pepsin degraded pig gastric mucin

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    Mucins are the main macromolecular components of the mucus secretions that cover the oral cavity, gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts of animals. The properties of the mucus secretions are therefore directly correlated with the physicochemical properties of mucin glycoproteins. In this study, mucins were obtained from pig gastric mucous after digestion with pepsin at 37 ‚ĀįC for 4 hours, these mucins were characterised in terms of compositional and hydrodynamic properties. Compositional analysis showed that this mucin contains protein (15%), carbohydrates (55%) of which the constituents are: fucose (4%), galactose (9%), glucosamine (55%), glucosamine (33%) and sialic acid (2%). The latter component gives the mucin polymer a pH-dependant negative charge, with a -potential of -3 mV at pH 1.2 up to -11 mV at pH 7.4. The weight average molar mass was ~1 x 106 g/mol and intrinsic viscosity was ~0.42 dL/g although there was a small pH dependency due to the polyelectrolyte behaviour of the polymer. The measurements of viscosity versus shear rate showed shear thinning behaviour and the critical overlap concentration was determined to be 10-11% w/v indicating a compact structure. Knowledge of these properties is fundamental to the understanding interactions of mucins, with for example, novel drug delivery systems

    Terminology of separation methods (IUPAC Recommendations 2017)

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    This article has an erratum. Doi: 10.1515/pac-2021-1006Recommendations are given concerning the terminology of methods of separation in analytical chemistry, including chromatography, electromigration techniques, and field-flow fractionation and related techniques.Peer reviewe

    Hierarchical Star Formation in Nearby LEGUS Galaxies

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    Hierarchical structure in ultraviolet images of 12 late-type LEGUS galaxies is studied by determining the numbers and fluxes of nested regions as a function of size from ~1 to ~200 pc, and the number as a function of flux. Two starburst dwarfs, NGC 1705 and NGC 5253, have steeper number-size and flux-size distributions than the others, indicating high fractions of the projected areas filled with star formation. Nine subregions in 7 galaxies have similarly steep number-size slopes, even when the whole galaxies have shallower slopes. The results suggest that hierarchically structured star-forming regions several hundred parsecs or larger represent common unit structures. Small galaxies dominated by only a few of these units tend to be starbursts. The self-similarity of young stellar structures down to parsec scales suggests that star clusters form in the densest parts of a turbulent medium that also forms loose stellar groupings on larger scales. The presence of super star clusters in two of our starburst dwarfs would follow from the observed structure if cloud and stellar subregions more readily coalesce when self-gravity in the unit cell contributes more to the total gravitational potential.Comment: 9 pages, 4 figures, accepted for ApJ

    An Open System for Social Computation

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    Part of the power of social computation comes from using the collective intelligence of humans to tame the aggregate uncertainty of (otherwise) low veracity data obtained from human and automated sources. We have witnessed a surge in development of social computing systems but, ironically, there have been few attempts to generalise across this activity so that creation of the underlying mechanisms themselves can be made more social. We describe a method for achieving this by standardising patterns of social computation via lightweight formal specifications (we call these social artifacts) that can be connected to existing internet architectures via a single model of computation. Upon this framework we build a mechanism for extracting provenance meta-data across social computations
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