256,955 research outputs found

    Combustion instability sustained by unsteady vortex combustion

    Get PDF
    The determination of an internal feedback mechanism which leads to combustion instability inside a small scale laboratory combustor is presented in this paper. During combustion instability, the experimental findings show that a large vortical structure is formed at an acoustic resonant mode of the system. The subsequent unsteady burning, within the vortex as it is convected downstream, feeds energy into the acoustic field and sustains the large resonant oscillations. These vortices are formed when the acoustic velocity fluctuation at the flameholder is a large fraction of the mean flow velocity. The propagation of these vortices is not a strong function of the mean flow speed and appears to be dependent upon the frequency of the instability. Continued existence of large vortical structures which characterize unstable operation depends upon the fuel-air ratio, system acoustics, and fuel type

    Correlations between solar activity and operationally determined satellite drag variation parameters

    Get PDF
    Operational orbit determination of the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft using the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) in the Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has yielded an orbit solution data base of 3 years for ERBS and 8 years for SMM. One of the parameters in each data base is the drag variation parameter used in the GTDS atmospheric drag model; this parameter is solved routinely to accommodate the different atmospheric densities as they are encountered solution to solution. These two data bases of the drag variation parameter solutions are analyzed to evaluate correlations in the variations of the parameter with changes in the 10.7-cm wavelength solar flux, F10.7, and the geomagnetic index. The data for SMM span a wider range of solar flux values and show a stronger correlation. The data for ERBS, which is at a higher altitude and inclination than SMM, show a significant degree of scatter. For both satellites, the data indicate that changes in the drag variation parameter are more strongly correlated with the F10.7 solar flux than with the geomagnetic index. Correlations with the geomagnetic index are apparent only for severe geomagnetic storm conditions. Results from this analysis enhance the understanding of the drag model and the accommodation density variations in operational orbit determination support

    Spatial dependences in the distant solar wind: Pioneers 10 and 11

    Get PDF
    Pioneer 10, 11 observations of the solar wind and magnetic field between 1 and 20 AU are reviewed. Spatial dependences, which are emphasized, must be inferred in the presence of large temporal variations including solar cycle effects. The separation of spatial and temporal dependences is achieved principally through the use of multipoint observations including baseline measurements at 1 AU. Measurements of the solar wind parameters (radial speed, flux, proton temperature) and of the magnetic field magnitude and components are compared with two theories, the Parker theory which assumes radial, azimuthally symmetric flow and the Goldstein-Jokipii theory which includes effects associated with stream-stream interactions. The observed radial gradients in the proton density and velocity and the magnetic field are consistent with the Parker model. A qualitative dependence of field magnitude on heliomagnetic latitude, i.e., referred to the observed location of the heliospheric current sheet, was derived. The field strength was found to decrease with distance from the current sheet

    Caring for America’s aging population: a profile of the direct-care workforce

    Get PDF
    Direct-care workers constitute a low-wage, high-turnover workforce with low levels of health insurance; taking these characteristics into account guides the challenge of how to deal with the growing demand for long-term care by an aging U.S. population

    Development of optical modulators for measurements of solar magnetic fields

    Get PDF
    The measurement of polarized light allows solar astronomers to infer the magnetic field on the Sun. The accuracy of these measurements is dependent on the stable retardation characteristics of the polarization modulators used to minimize the atmospheric effects seen in ground-based observations. This report describes the work by the Space Science Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center to improve two types of polarization modulators. As a result, the timing characteristics for both electrooptic crystals (KD*Ps) and liquid crystal devices (LCDs) have been studied and will be used to enhance the capabilities of the MSFC Vector Magnetograph

    Solar cycle variations in the interplanetary magnetic field

    Get PDF
    ISEE 3 interplanetary magnetic field measurements have been used to extend the NSSDC hourly averaged IMF composite data set through mid-1982. Most of sunspot cycle 20 (start:1964) and the first half of cycle 21 (start:1976) are now covered. The average magnitude of the field was relatively constant over cycle 20 with approx. 5-10% decreases in 1969 and 1971, when the Sun's polar regions changed polarity, and a 20% decrease in 1975-6 around solar minimum. Since the start of the new cycle, the total field strength has risen with the mean for the first third of 1982 being about 40% greater than the cycle 20 average. As during the previous cycle, an approx. 10% drop in IMF magnitude accompanied the 1980 reversal of the solar magnetic field. While the interplanetary magnetic field is clearly stronger during the present solar cycle, another 5-7 years of observations will be needed to determine if cycle 21 exhibits the same modest variations as the last cycle. Accordingly, it appears at this time that intercycle changes in IMF magnitude may be much larger than the intracycle variations
    • …