5,133 research outputs found

    The multiplicity and the spectra of secondaries correlated with the leading particle energy

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    The spectra of leading particles of different nature in pp-collisions at E sub 0 = 33 GeV are obtained. The multiplicities and the spectra of secondaries, mesons, gamma-quanta, lambda and lambda-hyperons and protons for different leading particle energy ranges are determined

    The effect of the relative nuclear size on the nucleus-nucleus interactions

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    The experimental data on the interactions of light nuclei (d, He(4), C(12)) at the momentum 4.2 GeV/cA with the carbon nuclei were taken in the 2-m propane bubble chamber. The distributions in the number of interacting nucleons, the spectra of protons, the mean energies of secondary pions and protons, the mean fractions of energy transferred to the pion and nucleon components are presented. The results of the investigation of the mechanism of nucleus-nucleus interactions can be used to calculate the nuclear cascades in the atmosphere

    Evolution of adaptation mechanisms: adaptation energy, stress, and oscillating death

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    In 1938, H. Selye proposed the notion of adaptation energy and published "Experimental evidence supporting the conception of adaptation energy". Adaptation of an animal to different factors appears as the spending of one resource. Adaptation energy is a hypothetical extensive quantity spent for adaptation. This term causes much debate when one takes it literally, as a physical quantity, i.e. a sort of energy. The controversial points of view impede the systematic use of the notion of adaptation energy despite experimental evidence. Nevertheless, the response to many harmful factors often has general non-specific form and we suggest that the mechanisms of physiological adaptation admit a very general and nonspecific description. We aim to demonstrate that Selye's adaptation energy is the cornerstone of the top-down approach to modelling of non-specific adaptation processes. We analyse Selye's axioms of adaptation energy together with Goldstone's modifications and propose a series of models for interpretation of these axioms. {\em Adaptation energy is considered as an internal coordinate on the `dominant path' in the model of adaptation}. The phenomena of `oscillating death' and `oscillating remission' are predicted on the base of the dynamical models of adaptation. Natural selection plays a key role in the evolution of mechanisms of physiological adaptation. We use the fitness optimization approach to study of the distribution of resources for neutralization of harmful factors, during adaptation to a multifactor environment, and analyse the optimal strategies for different systems of factors

    The mechanical treatment as a method of Inorganic substances passive

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    The mechanopassivation effect of metal (II) oxides crystallizing by the structural type of halite under attrition treatment has been found out. For the assessment of the activity decrease the following has been investigated: solution and aquation kinetics of CaO and MgO in water and solutions; spinel and calcium carbide formation kinetics using oxides pretreated mechanically by different modes; kinetics of CO2 fixation and thermal desorption from the pretreated oxides surface; magnesia and phosphate cements set rate. It has been determined that the rate of studied processes with the participation of oxides subjected to attrition treatment reduces by a factor of tens and hundreds. We suppose the cause to be the removal of the rough loosened layers containing the most of defects from the polycrystalline aggregates surface. As that neighboring zones accommodate, their surfaces flatten and the bonding area rises. Separated smallest particles form compact aggregates. The powder density increase and sharper diffraction reflection form confirm the microstructure regulating. Flat surfaces with lower quantity of defects provoke the hypoactivity in regard to water vapors and carbon dioxide. The substances mechanopassivation study can be used to control the reaction rate with the participation of highly active reagents

    Evaluation of Carbon Assimilation by Regenerating Soils of the Central Black Earth Region of Russia

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    The study presents the options for the estimation of soil assimilation rates with carbon regenerating after an anthropogenic influence in the Central Black Earth region of Russia. The evaluation methodology is based on the use of mathematical models of the trend component processes for the humus horizon and humus accumulation development in Forest-Steppe Black Earth area

    Available drugs during of military state: social-economic strategies of functioning reimbursumen’t system

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    The Russian aggresion against Ukraine became a new reality in the XXI century and definitely shook the whole World. New realities are forcing all spheres of science and practice to work harder and develop, that is why philosophers of law are tended to call war “the driving force of progress”. Our modern life in the condition of war proves, that the technical and scientific progress as it is, is created and developed on thousands and millions of destroyed human lives. But, in order to make a warring society to move successfully forward, save as many innocent lives as possible and meet basic needs of a particularly vulnerable polutation, it is not only army, which is supposed to work for 100%, but also “home front workers” has to try harder. The current war has dimished an understanding of difference between quintiles of population, especially, if we are taking into account differences between beneficiaries of the Affordable Medicines Program (AM). At the beginning of the War, all beneficiaries of the AM, despite of level of their well-being had to suffer equally because of the short-term period of medicines’ shortage due to destroyed infrastructure of cities and regions. They were afraid that those highly necessary medicines would not return to the pharmacies neither in the sphere of the AM, nor even for normal sale. Because of the aforementioned force-majeure, most of people were not even assured that their basic needs will be met, especially were worried those ones, who have been active users of the AM for a long period of time. However, despite of the aforementioned destruction of the insfrastrucutre, the commons fears and dangers of war, the AM has not stopped working. On the contrary, it has become even more successful and progressive. The need to react quickly to the circumstances that took place, forced to achieve long-term plans of the AM creators in a very short time. Thus, the pilot program has finally fit into the general outline of the life support and health care system of Ukraine and became perhaps the most progressive in the whole Europe. But, nevertheless, the progress is definitely not standing still, the situation remains critical, the humanitarian catastrophe is becoming more and more real today, and, thus, the AM opens new promising ways of development for the coming month and years. In fact, our study was devoted to the analysis of the changes that took place since February 24, 2022, as well as promising directions for the development of AM, which are mostly dictated by the newly created humaniatrian crises in the current article.Новою реалією ХХІ століття стала загарбницька війна Росії проти України, яка без сумніву сколихнула цілий світ. Нові реалії життя змушують всі сфери науки і практики працювати у посиленому режимі та розвиватись, саме тому філософи права називають війну “рушійною силою прогресу”. Сучасне життя доводить, що технічний і науковий прогрес, як виявилось, створюється і розвивається на тисячах і мільйонах зруйнованих людських життів. Але, задля того, щоб суспільство країни, що воює, змогло рухатись далі, змогло врятувати якумога більше безвинних життів та забезпечувати базові потреби особливо вразливого контингенту населення, не тільки армія, але й “герої тилу”, тобто медики і вся система охорони здоров’я мають працювати на 100%, як це власне і відбувається зараз. Війна знизила важливість понять “квінтилі населення”, особливо якщо йдеться про прямих бенефіціарів програми “Доступні ліки”, адже серед них всі, незалежно від особистого та фінансового благополуччя, були піддані необхідності страждати від першострокової нестачі ліків, які забезпечувались програмою; були підвергнуті страху, що ці ліки не повернуться не тільки в рамках програми Доступні ліки (ДЛ), але і в принципі будуть недоступні через знищену інфраструктуру багатьох міст, а отже здійснився такий force majeure, при якому жодна людина не могла бути впевнена у власному забезпеченні навіть базових потреб, і особливо ті, хто протягом тривалого часу вже був активним користувачем ДЛ. Тим не менш, не дивлячись на вищезгадану зруйновану інфраструктуру, загальні страх і небезпеку, які приносить із собою війна, програма ДЛ не припинила свою роботу, навпаки, стала навіть більш прогресивною і успішною. Необхідність стрімко реагувати на обставини, які мали місце з погляду на війну, змусили досягнути довготривалі плани творців ДЛ за дуже короткий термін. Таким чином, пілотна програма остаточно вписалась в загальну канву системи життєзабезпечення та охорони здоров’я України і стали чи не найбільш прогресивною в цілій Європі. Але, тим не менш, прогрес безумовно не стоїть на місці, ситуація залишається критичною, гуманітарна катастрофа стає все більш реальною на сьогоднішній день, а отже ДЛ відкриває нові перспективні шляхи розвитку на найближчі місяці і роки. Власне аналізові змін, які мали місце, починаючи від 24-го лютого 2022 року, а також перспективним напрямкам розвитку ДЛ, які здебільшого продиктовані новоствореними гуманітраними кризами населення нашої країни, які мали місце через війну, і було присвячено наше дослідження, результати якого будуть освітлені у нинішній статті

    Effect oF Ligand's Nature on Chemical Deposition by Sodium Sulphate of Sodium thin CdSe Films

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    The work was financially supported by program 211 of the Government of the Russian Federation (No. 02.A03.21.0006.
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