2,443 research outputs found

    Sovereign Wealth Funds: Russian and International Experience

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    Taking the Russian and the International experience, the principal aim of this study is to analyse sovereign wealth funds critically. It remains well known that the Russian National Wealth Fund is vital in the macroeconomic policy of the Russian state. After the abolition of the Reserve Fund in 2018, the Russian National Wealth Fund has to solve a wide range of tasks. In this context, one can argue that the sovereign welfare fund is a specialised monetary fund used to stabilise the state budget when government revenues decline. The welfare fund is also used to finance government needs in the long-term period. The role of sovereign wealth funds is growing in the world. They accumulate large amounts of financial resources. Sovereign wealth funds are founded in such countries where the budget strongly depends on market factors. In most cases, these factors are global commodity prices. The funds’ money is used to cover the deficit of the relevant budget in case of unfavourable market shifts. In the period of high commodity prices, the fund accumulates an excess of export earnings. Against this backdrop, the key purpose of the study is to evaluate the efficiency of managing the National Wealth Fund in the Russian Federation. The study was carried out using the methods of synthesis, analysis, economic analysis, as well as graphic methods, and the methods of comparisons and analogies, which in turn helps in evaluating the extent of efficiency of managing the Russian National Wealth Fund.. The research findings can be used when developing an investment strategy (investment portfolio) of the Russian National Wealth Fund, through which it can aim at balancing the insurance pension system, financing of the federal budget deficit, and co-financing of voluntary pension savings. In this regard, it is imperative for the fund to perform in productive investment activities

    Development of water supply systems in small municipalities

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    Supplying population of small municipalities with drinking water brings up a number of problems. The main ones are water production, its treatment and transportation. Studying the difficulties of supplying population with drinking water makes it possible to identify acute problems and to outline the prospects for the development of water supply systems. The statistical data on water supply problems are given. The dynamics of aging water systems is presented. Various water supply schemes are considered. There are highlighted unique details of each water supply system, that require an individual approach, careful preparation and analysis of the initial data, and performance of quite complex technical and economic calculations. The options for combining existing systems and their reconstruction are discussed. Water supply systems with a water tower are analyzed. Ways out of the crisis in water supply field are suggested

    Using HCO+^+ isotopologues as tracers of gas depletion in protoplanetary disk gaps

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    The widespread rings and gaps seen in the dust continuum in protoplanetary disks are sometimes accompanied by similar substructures seen in molecular line emission. One example is the outer gap at 100 au in AS 209, which shows that the H13_{13}CO+^+ and C18_{18}O emission intensities decrease along with the continuum in the gap, while the DCO+^+ emission increases inside the gap. We aim to study the behavior of DCO+^+/H13_{13}CO+^+ and DCO+^+/HCO+^+ ratios in protoplanetary disk gaps assuming the two scenarios: the gas depletion follows the dust depletion and only the dust is depleted. We first modeled the physical disk structure using the thermo-chemical model ANDES. This 1+1D steady-state disk model calculates the thermal balance of gas and dust and includes the FUV, X-rays, cosmic rays, and other ionization sources together with the reduced chemical network for molecular coolants. Afterward, this physical structure was adopted for calculations of molecular abundances with the extended gas-grain chemical network with deuterium fractionation. Ideal synthetic spectra and 0th-moment maps were produced with LIME. We are able to qualitatively reproduce the increase in the DCO+^+ intensity and the decrease in the H13_{13}CO+^+ and C18_{18}O intensities inside the disk gap, which is qualitatively similar to what is observed in the outer AS 209 gap. The corresponding disk model assumes that both the gas and dust are depleted in the gap. The model with the gas-rich gap, where only the dust is depleted, produces emission that is too bright in all HCO+^+ isotopologues and C18_{18}O. The DCO+^+/H13_{13}CO+^+ line ratio can be used to probe gas depletion in dust continuum gaps outside of the CO snow line. The DCO+^+/C18_{18}O line ratio shows a similar, albeit weaker, effect; however, these species can be observed simultaneously with a single ALMA or NOEMA setup.Comment: 12 pages, 7 figures, Accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysic

    A New Approach of Implementation of MMSE Demodulator for Massive MIMO Systems

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    Multiple-Input Multiple Output (MIMO) is the key technology in most advanced wireless communication standarts like 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) and IEEE 802.11n/ac/ad (Wi-Fi). The cost of MIMO improvements is increased computational complexity of the signal processing at both ends and, as a consequence, growing complexity of the hardware. We propose a new approach of implementation of traditional MMSE demodulator reducing computational complexity for massive MIMO systems

    Chaperones that cure yeast artificial [PSI+] and their prion-specific effects

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    AbstractThe [PSI+] nonsense-suppressor determinant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae results from the ability of Sup35 (eRF3) translation termination factor to undergo prion-like aggregation [1]. Although this process is autocatalytic, in vivo it depends on the chaperone Hsp104, whose lack or overexpression can cure [PSI+] [2]. Overproduction of the chaperone protein Ssb1 increased the [PSI+] curing by excess Hsp104, although it had no effect on its own, and excess chaperone protein Ssa1 protected [PSI+] against Hsp104 [3,4]. We used an artificial [PSI+PS] based on the Sup35 prion-forming domain from yeast Pichia methanolica[5] to find other prion-curing factors. Both [PSI+PS] and [PSI+] have prion ‘strains’, differing in their suppressor efficiency and mitotic stability. We show that [PSI+PS] and a ‘weak’ strain of [PSI+] can be cured by overexpression of chaperones Ssa1, Ssb1 and Ydj1. The ability of different chaperones to cure [PSI+PS] showed significant prion strain specificity, which could be related to variation in Sup35 prion structure. Our results imply that homologs of these chaperones may be active against mammalian prion and amyloid diseases

    Itt1p, a novel protein inhibiting translation termination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    BACKGROUND: Termination of translation in eukaryotes is controlled by two interacting polypeptide chain release factors, eRFl and eRF3. eRFl recognizes nonsense codons UAA, UAG and UGA, while eRF3 stimulates polypeptide release from the ribosome in a GTP- and eRFl – dependent manner. Recent studies has shown that proteins interacting with these release factors can modulate the efficiency of nonsense codon readthrough. RESULTS: We have isolated a nonessential yeast gene, which causes suppression of nonsense mutations, being in a multicopy state. This gene encodes a protein designated Itt1p, possessing a zinc finger domain characteristic of the TRIAD proteins of higher eukaryotes. Overexpression of Itt1p decreases the efficiency of translation termination, resulting in the readthrough of all three types of nonsense codons. Itt1p interacts in vitro with both eRFl and eRF3. Overexpression of eRFl, but not of eRF3, abolishes the nonsense suppressor effect of overexpressed Itt1p. CONCLUSIONS: The data obtained demonstrate that Itt1p can modulate the efficiency of translation termination in yeast. This protein possesses a zinc finger domain characteristic of the TRIAD proteins of higher eukaryotes, and this is a first observation of such protein being involved in translation

    Design, Performance, and Calibration of CMS Hadron-Barrel Calorimeter Wedges

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    Extensive measurements have been made with pions, electrons and muons on four production wedges of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) hadron barrel (HB) calorimeter in the H2 beam line at CERN with particle momenta varying from 20 to 300 GeV/c. Data were taken both with and without a prototype electromagnetic lead tungstate crystal calorimeter (EB) in front of the hadron calorimeter. The time structure of the events was measured with the full chain of preproduction front-end electronics running at 34 MHz. Moving-wire radioactive source data were also collected for all scintillator layers in the HB. These measurements set the absolute calibration of the HB prior to first pp collisions to approximately 4%

    Energy Response and Longitudinal Shower Profiles Measured in CMS HCAL and Comparison With Geant4

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    The response of the CMS combined electromagnetic and hadron calorimeter to beams of pions with momenta in the range 5-300 GeV/c has been measured in the H2 test beam at CERN. The raw response with the electromagnetic compartment calibrated to electrons and the hadron compartment calibrated to 300 GeV pions may be represented by sigma = (1.2) sqrt{E} oplus (0.095) E. The fraction of energy visible in the calorimeter ranges from 0.72 at 5 GeV to 0.95 at 300 GeV, indicating a substantial nonlinearity. The intrinsic electron to hadron ratios are fit as a function of energy and found to be in the range 1.3-2.7 for the electromagnetic compartment and 1.4-1.8 for the hadronic compartment. The fits are used to correct the non-linearity of the e pi response to 5% over the entire measured range resulting in a substantially improved resolution at low energy. Longitudinal shower profile have been measured in detail and compared to Geant4 models, LHEP-3.7 and QGSP-2.8. At energies below 30 GeV, the data, LHEP and QGSP are in agreement. Above 30 GeV, LHEP gives a more accurate simulation of the longitudinal shower profile