6,991 research outputs found

    Parallaxes of Five L Dwarfs with a Robotic Telescope

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    We report the parallax and proper motion of five L dwarfs obtained with observations from the robotic Liverpool Telescope. Our derived proper motions are consistent with published values and have considerably smaller errors. Based on our spectral type versus absolute magnitude diagram, we do not find any evidence for binaries among our sampleor, at least no comparable mass binaries. Their space velocities locate them within the thin disk, and based on the model comparisons, they have solar-like abundances. For all five objects, we derived effective temperature, luminosity, radius, gravity, and mass from an evolutionary model (CBA00) and our measured parallax; moreover, we derived their effective temperature by integrating observed optical and near-infrared spectra and model spectra (BSH06 or BT-Dusty) at longer wavelengths to obtain bolometric flux using the classical Stefan-Boltzmann law. Generally, the three temperatures for one object derived using two different methods with three models are consistent, although at lower temperature (e.g., for L4) the differences among the three temperatures are slightly larger than those at higher temperature (e.g., for L1).Peer reviewe

    The extremely red L dwarf ULAS J222711-004547-dominated by dust

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    We report the discovery of a peculiar L dwarf from the United Kingdom Infrared Deep Sky Survey Large Area Survey, ULAS J222711-004547. The very red infrared photometry (MKO J-K = 2.79 +/- 0.06, WISEW1-W2 = 0.65 +/- 0.05) of ULAS J222711-004547 makes it one of the reddest brown dwarfs discovered so far. We obtained a moderate resolution spectrum of this target using the XSHOOTER spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope, and we classify it as L7pec, confirming its very red nature. Comparison to theoretical models suggests that the object could be a low-gravity L dwarf with a solar or higher than solar metallicity. Nonetheless, the match of such fits to the spectral energy distribution is rather poor, and this and other less red peculiar L dwarfs pose new challenges for the modelling of ultracool atmospheres, especially to the understanding of the effects of condensates and their sensitivity to gravity and metallicity. We determined the proper motion of ULAS J222711-004547 using the data available in the literature, and we find that its kinematics do not suggest membership of any of the known young associations. We show that applying a simple de-reddening curve to its spectrum allows it to resemble the spectra of the L7 spectroscopic standards without any spectral features that distinguish it as a low-metallicity or low-gravity dwarf. Given the negligible interstellar reddening of the field containing our target, we conclude that the reddening of the spectrum is mostly due to an excess of dust in the photosphere of the target. De-reddening the spectrum using extinction curves for different dust species gives surprisingly good results and suggests a characteristic grain size of similar to 0.5 mu m. We show that by increasing the optical depth, the same extinction curves allow the spectrum of ULAS J222711-004547 to resemble the spectra of unusually blue L dwarfs and even slightly metal-poor L dwarfs. Grains of similar size also yield very good fits when de-reddening other unusually red L dwarfs in the L5-L7.5 range. These results suggest that the diversity in near-infrared colours and spectra seen in late L dwarfs could be due to differences in the optical thickness of the dust cloud deck.Peer reviewe

    The heats of formation of the haloacetylenes XCCY [X, Y = H, F, Cl]: basis set limit ab initio results and thermochemical analysis

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    The heats of formation of haloacetylenes are evaluated using the recent W1 and W2 ab initio computational thermochemistry methods. These calculations involve CCSD and CCSD(T) coupled cluster methods, basis sets of up to spdfgh quality, extrapolations to the one-particle basis set limit, and contributions of inner-shell correlation, scalar relativistic effects, and (where relevant) first-order spin-orbit coupling. The heats of formation determined using W2 theory are: \hof(HCCH) = 54.48 kcal/mol, \hof(HCCF) = 25.15 kcal/mol, \hof(FCCF) = 1.38 kcal/mol, \hof(HCCCl) = 54.83 kcal/mol, \hof(ClCCCl) = 56.21 kcal/mol, and \hof(FCCCl) = 28.47 kcal/mol. Enthalpies of hydrogenation and destabilization energies relative to acetylene were obtained at the W1 level of theory. So doing we find the following destabilization order for acetylenes: FCCF >> ClCCF >> HCCF >> ClCCCl >> HCCCl >> HCCH. By a combination of W1 theory and isodesmic reactions, we show that the generally accepted heat of formation of 1,2-dichloroethane should be revised to -31.8¬Ī\pm0.6 kcal/mol, in excellent agreement with a very recent critically evaluated review. The performance of compound thermochemistry schemes such as G2, G3, G3X and CBS-QB3 theories has been analyzed.Comment: Mol. Phys., in press (E. R. Davidson issue

    Parallaxes of southern extremely cool objects III : 118 L and T dwarfs

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    We present new results from the Parallaxes of Southern Extremely Cool dwarfs program to measure parallaxes, proper motions and multiepoch photometry of L and early T dwarfs. The observations were made on 108 nights over the course of 8 yr using the Wide Field Imager on the ESO 2.2m telescope. We present 118 new parallaxes of L and T dwarfs of which 52 have no published values and 24 of the 66 published values are preliminary estimates from this program. The parallax precision varies from 1.0 to 15.5mas with a median of 3.8mas. We find evidence for two objects with long term photometric variation and 24 new moving group candidates. We cross-match our sample to published photometric catalogues and find standard magnitudes in up to 16 pass-bands from which we build spectral energy distributions and H-R diagrams. This allows us to confirm the theoretically anticipated minimum in radius between stars and brown dwarfs across the hydrogen burning minimum mass. We find the minimum occurs between L2 and L6 and verify the predicted steep dependence of radius in the hydrogen burning regime and the gentle rise into the degenerate brown dwarf regime. We find a relatively young age of ~2 Gyr from the kinematics of our sample.Peer reviewedFinal Accepted Versio

    Primeval very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs - IV. New L subdwarfs, Gaia astrometry, population properties, and a blue brown dwarf binary

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    30 pages, 23 figuresWe present 27 new L subdwarfs and classify five of them as esdL and 22 as sdL. Our L subdwarf candidates were selected with the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey and Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Spectroscopic follow-up was carried out primarily with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the Gran Telescopio Canarias. Some of these new objects were followed up with the X-shooter instrument on the Very Large Telescope. We studied the photometric properties of the population of known L subdwarfs using colour-spectral type diagrams and colour-colour diagrams, by comparison with L dwarfs and main-sequence stars, and identified new colour spaces for L subdwarf selection/study in current and future surveys. We further discussed the brown dwarf transition-zone and the observational stellar/substellar boundary. We found that about one-third of 66 known L subdwarfs are substellar objects, with two-thirds being very low-mass stars. We also present the Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams, spectral type-absolute magnitude corrections, and tangential velocities of 20 known L subdwarfs observed by the Gaia astrometry satellite. One of our L subdwarf candidates, ULAS J233227.03+123452.0, is a mildly metal-poor spectroscopic binary brown dwarf: a ~L6p dwarf and a ~T4p dwarf. This binary is likely a thick disc member according to its kinematics.Peer reviewedFinal Accepted Versio

    Blockchain-Based Distributed Marketplace

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    Developments in Blockchain technology have enabled the creation of smart contracts; i.e., self-executing code that is stored and executed on the Blockchain. This has led to the creation of distributed, decentralised applications, along with frameworks for developing and deploying them easily. This paper describes a proof-of-concept system that implements a distributed online marketplace using the Ethereum framework, where buyers and sellers can engage in e-commerce transactions without the need of a large central entity coordinating the process. The performance of the system was measured in terms of cost of use through the concept of ‚Äėgas usage‚Äô. It was determined that such costs are significantly less than that of Amazon and eBay for high volume users. The findings generally support the ability to use Ethereum to create a distributed on-chain market, however, there are still areas that require further research and development

    Maturity associated variance in physical activity and health-related quality of life in adolescent females. A mediated effects model

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    BACKGROUND. This study tested a mediated effects model of psychological and behavioral adaptation to puberty within the context of physical activity (PA). METHODS. Biological maturity status, physical self-concept, PA, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were assessed in 222 female British year 7 to 9 pupils (mean age = 12.7 years, SD = .8). RESULTS. Structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation and bootstrapping procedures supported the hypothesized model. Maturation status was inversely related to perceptions of sport competence, body attractiveness, and physical condition; and indirectly and inversely related to physical self-worth, PA, and HRQoL. Examination of the bootstrap-generated bias-corrected confidence intervals representing the direct and indirect paths between suggested that physical self-concept partially mediated the relations between maturity status and PA, and maturity status and HRQoL. CONCLUSIONS. Evidence supports the contention that perceptions of the physical self partially mediate relations maturity, PA, and HRQoL in adolescent females

    Jahn-Teller distortions and phase separation in doped manganites

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    A "minimal model" of the Kondo-lattice type is used to describe a competition between the localization and metallicity in doped manganites and related magnetic oxides with Jahn-Teller ions. It is shown that the number of itinerant charge carriers can be significantly lower than that implied by the doping level x. A strong tendency to the phase separation is demonstrated for a wide range of intermediate doping concentrations vanishing at low and high doping. The phase diagram of the model in the x-T plane is constructed. At low temperatures, the system is in a state with a long-range magnetic order: antiferromagnetic (AF), ferromagnetic (FM), or AF-FM phase separated (PS) state. At high temperatures, there can exist two types of the paramagnetic (PM) state with zero and nonzero density of the itinerant electrons. In the intermediate temperature range, the phase diagram includes different kinds of the PS states: AF-FM, FM-PM, and PM with different content of itinerant electrons. The applied magnetic field changes the phase diagram favoring the FM ordering. It is shown that the variation of temperature or magnetic field can induce the metal-insulator transition in a certain range of doping levels.Comment: 14 pages, 7 figures, submitted to Phys. Rev. B.; v.2 contains the changes introduced according to comments of the PRB Referees; in v. 3, some misprints are correcte
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