803 research outputs found

    Potentials to differentiate milk composition by different feeding strategies

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    To investigate the effect of the dietary intake of the cow on milk composition, bulk-tank milk was collected on 5 occasions from conventional (n = 15) and organic (n = 10) farms in Denmark and on 4 occasions from low-input nonorganic farms in the United Kingdom, along with management and production parameters. Production of milk based on feeding a high intake of cereals, pasture, and grass silage resulted in milk with a high concentration of α-linolenic acid (9.4 ± 0.2 mg/ kg of fatty acids), polyunsaturated fatty acids (3.66 ± 0.07 mg/kg of fatty acids), and natural stereoisomer of α-tocopherol (RRR-α-tocopherol, 18.6 ± 0.5 mg/kg of milk fat). A milk production system using a high proportion of maize silage, by-products, and commercial concentrate mix was associated with milk with high concentrations of linoleic acid (LA; 19.7 ± 0.4 g/kg of fatty acids), monounsaturated fatty acids (27.5 ± 0.3 mg/kg of fatty acids), and a high ratio between LA and α-linolenic acid (4.7 ± 0.2). Comparing these 2 production systems with a very extensive nonorganic milk production system relying on pasture as almost the sole feed (95 ± 4% dry matter intake), it was found that the concentrations of conjugated LA (cis-9,trans-11; 17.5 ± 0.7 g/kg of fatty acids), trans-11-vaccenic acid (37 ± 2 g/kg of fatty acids), and monounsaturated fatty acids (30.4 ± 0.6 g/kg of fatty acids) were higher in the extensively produced milk together with the concentration of antioxidants; total α-tocopherol (32.0 ± 0.8 mg/kg of milk fat), RRR-α-tocopherol (30.2 ± 0.8 mg/kg of milk fat), and β-carotene (9.3 ± 0.5 mg/kg of milk fat) compared with the organic and conventional milk. Moreover, the concentration of LA (9.2 ± 0.7 g/kg of fatty acids) in milk from the extensive milk production system was found to approach the recommended unity ratio between n-6 and n-3, although extensive milk production also resulted in a lower daily milk yield

    Effect of production system and geographic location on milk quality parameters

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    A main reason for the rapid increase in organic food consumption is the perception that organic foods have a superior nutritional composition and/or convey health benefits. However, there is currently limited scientific knowledge about the effect of production systems on food composition. The study reported here compared fatty acid profiles and levels of fat soluble antioxidants in milk from organic and conventional production systems in 5 geographic regions in Europe (Wales, England, Denmark, Sweden and Italy). Levels of nutritionally desirable mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (vaccenic acid, CLA, α-linolenic acid) and/or a range of fat soluble antioxidants were found to be significantly higher in organic milk

    Relationship between C-telopeptide pyridinoline cross-links (ICTP) and putative periodontal pathogens in periodontitis

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    Crevicular fluid pyridinoline cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (ICTP) is predictive for future alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis in dogs. The present study sought to relate ICTP to a panel of subgingival species in subjects exhibiting various clinical presentations such as health ( n = 7), gingivitis ( n = 8) and periodontitis (n=21), 28 subgingival plaque and GCF samples were taken from mesiobuccal sites m each of 36 subjects. The presence and levels of 40 subgtngivai taxa were determined in plaque samples using whole genomic DNA probes and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. GCF ICTP levels were quantified using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Clinical assessments made at the same sites included: BOP, gingival redness, plaque, pocket depth, and attachment level. Differences among ICTP levels in the 3 subject groups were sought using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Relationships between ICTP levels and clinical parameters as well as subgingival species were determined by regression analysis. The results demonstrated significant differences among disease categories for GCF ICTP levels for healthy (1.1+0.6 pg/site (mean±SEM)) gingivitis (14.8±6.6 pg/site) and penodontitts subjects (30.3 + 5.7 pg/site) ( p = 0.0017). ICTP levels related modestly to several clinical parameters. Regression analysis indicated that ICTP levels correlated strongly with mean subject levels of several periodontal pathogens including B. forsythus, P. gingivitis, P. intermedia, P. nigrescens and T. dentcola ( p < 0.01). The data indicate that there is a positive relationship between the putative bone resorptive marker ICTP and periodontal pathogens.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/74809/1/j.1600-051X.1998.tb02383.x.pd

    Effect of the probiotic Lactobacilli reuteri (Prodentis) in the management of periodontal disease: a preliminary randomized clinical trial

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    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Lactobacilli reuteri (Prodentis) alone and in combination with scaling and root planing (SRP) in a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of volunteers with chronic periodontitis. Methods: Thirty, otherwise systemically healthy, chronic periodontitis patients (19 males and 11 females, aged between 34 and 50 years) were included. The study period was 42 days. &#x2018;Split-mouth&#x2019; design was used for the SRP, which was performed on day 0; two quadrants (either right or left) were treated with SRP whereas the remaining two quadrants were left untreated. The participants received a toothbrush, toothpaste, and brushing instructions. L. reuteri Prodentis lozenges (1&#x00D7;108 CFU DSM17938&#x200A;+&#x200A;1&#x00D7;108 CFU ATCC PTA 5289) or the corresponding placebo lozenges were taken twice daily from day 21 to day 42. Statistical analysis was done for comparisons of clinical parameters (Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL)) and microbiological levels of the pathogens Aggregibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), and Prevotella intermedia (Pi). All p-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Assessments were made on day 0 before SRP treatment, on day 21 before administration of the lozenges, and on day 42. Results: At day 42, the PI, GI, and GBI were significantly reduced by all treatment modalities. When ranked, the amount of PI, GI and GBI reduction by the different treatments was SRP&#x200A;+&#x200A;Prodentis&#x200A;&#x003E;&#x200A;Prodentis&#x200A;&#x003E;&#x200A;SRP&#x200A;+&#x200A;placebo&#x200A;&#x003E;&#x200A;placebo; all differences were statistically significant. For PPD and CAL, the best result was obtained with the SRP&#x200A;+&#x200A;Prodentis treatment. PPD was reduced from 5.08&#x00B1;0.75 to 3.78&#x00B1;0.61&#x2009;mm (p&#60;0.001) and CAL from 3.93&#x00B1;0.93 to 2.85&#x00B1;0.74&#x2009;mm (p&#60;0.001). Prodentis, either alone or following SRP, reduced Aa, Pi, and Pg by 1 log10 unit (p&#60;0.01). The SRP&#x200A;+&#x200A;placebo combination did not significantly affect the levels of the pathogens. Conclusion: The present randomized controlled trial confirms the plaque inhibition, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial effects of L. reuteri Prodentis. L. reuteri Prodentis probiotic can be recommended during non-surgical therapy and the maintenance phase of periodontal treatment. Considering the beneficial effects of probiotics, this therapy could serve as a useful adjunct or alternative to periodontal treatment when SRP might be contraindicated. Further studies are required in this direction

    The effects on chronic periodontitis of a subgingivally-placed redox agent in a slow release device

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    Adjunctive chemical agents can reduce the need for meticulous plaque control. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the periodontal treatment potential of subgingival application of the redox agent methylene blue in a slow release device. This randomized, single-blind, split-mouth study included 18 patients aged 35- 57 years, with chronic adult periodontitis, pocketing of at least 5mm and radiographic evidence of regular bone loss. All experimental sites received subgingival debridement at day 0. Test sites received 32% w/w methylene blue in the slow release device at days 0 and 28. Clinical examination and microbiological sampling were performed at days 0, 7, 28, 56 and 84. Clinical improvements were seen in both groups, but test sites showed consistently greater improvements, some of which were statistically significant (as determined by between-group comparisons utilising SNDs). Significant between-group differences in relation to baseline levels were seen in bleeding index at days 7 and 56, in probable pocket depth at day 56 and for the Perioscan BANA test at day 7. This pilot study thus showed that adjunctive methylene blue in a slow-release device can produce greater clinical and microbiological improvements than subgingival debridement alone.peer-reviewe

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Omp29 Is Associated with Bacterial Entry to Gingival Epithelial Cells by F-Actin Rearrangement

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    The onset and progressive pathogenesis of periodontal disease is thought to be initiated by the entry of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) into periodontal tissue, especially gingival epithelium. Nonetheless, the mechanism underlying such bacterial entry remains to be clarified. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the possible role of Aa outer membrane protein 29 kD (Omp29), a homologue of E. coli OmpA, in promoting bacterial entry into gingival epithelial cells. To accomplish this, Omp29 expression vector was incorporated in an OmpA-deficient mutant of E. coli. Omp29+/OmpA− E. coli demonstrated 22-fold higher entry into human gingival epithelial line cells (OBA9) than Omp29−/OmpA− E. coli. While the entry of Aa and Omp29+/OmpA− E. coli into OBA9 cells were inhibited by anti-Omp29 antibody, their adherence to OBA9 cells was not inhibited. Stimulation of OBA9 cells with purified Omp29 increased the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a pivotal cell-signaling molecule that can up-regulate actin rearrangement. Furthermore, Omp29 increased the formation of F-actin in OBA9 cells. The internalization of Omp29-coated beads and the entry of Aa into OBA9 were partially inhibited by treatment with PI3-kinase inhibitor (Wortmannin) and Rho GTPases inhibitor (EDIN), both known to convey FAK-signaling to actin-rearrangement. These results suggest that Omp29 is associated with the entry of Aa into gingival epithelial cells by up-regulating F-actin rearrangement via the FAK signaling pathway