5,843 research outputs found

    Isoelectronic series of oxygen deficient centers in silica: experimental estimation of homogeneous and inhomogeneous spectral widths

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    We report nanosecond time-resolved photoluminescence measurements on the isoelectronic series of oxygen deficient centers in amorphous silica, Si-ODC(II), Ge-ODC(II) and Sn-ODC(II) which are responsible of fluorescence activities at \sim4 eV under excitation at \sim5 eV. The dependence of the first moment of their emission band on time, and that of the radiative decay lifetime on emission energy are analyzed within a theoretical model able to describe the effects introduced by disorder on the optical properties of the defects. We obtain separate estimates of the homogeneous and inhomogeneous contributions to the measured emission linewidth and we derive homogeneous spectroscopic features of the investigated point defects (Huangh-Rhys factor, homogeneous width, oscillator strength, vibrational frequency). The results point to a picture in which an oxygen deficient center localized on a heavier atom features a higher degree of inhomogeneity due to stronger local distortion of the surrounding matrix. For Si, Ge, Sn related defects the parameter λ\lambda, able to quantify inhomogeneity, results to be 65, 78 and 90$%, respectively

    Structural relaxation of E' gamma centers in amorphous silica

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    We report experimental evidence of the existence of two variants of the E' gamma centers induced in silica by gamma rays at room temperature. The two variants are distinguishable by the fine features of their line shapes in paramagnetic resonance spectra. These features suggest that the two E' gamma differ for their topology. We find a thermally induced interconversion between the centers with an activation energy of about 34 meV. Hints are also found for the existence of a structural configuration of minimum energy and of a metastable state.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, submitted to Phys. Rev. Let

    Studies of the Response of the Prototype CMS Hadron Calorimeter, Including Magnetic Field Effects, to Pion, Electron, and Muon Beams

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    We report on the response of a prototype CMS hadron calorimeter module to charged particle beams of pions, muons, and electrons with momenta up to 375 GeV/c. The data were taken at the H2 and H4 beamlines at CERN in 1995 and 1996. The prototype sampling calorimeter used copper absorber plates and scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibers for readout. The effects of a magnetic field of up to 3 Tesla on the response of the calorimeter to muons, electrons, and pions are presented, and the effects of an upstream lead tungstate crystal electromagnetic calorimeter on the linearity and energy resolution of the combined calorimetric system to hadrons are evaluated. The results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations and are used to optimize the choice of total absorber depth, sampling frequency, and longitudinal readout segmentation.Comment: 89 pages, 41 figures, to be published in NIM, corresponding author: P de Barbaro, [email protected]

    Shadowing in Inelastic Scattering of Muons on Carbon, Calcium and Lead at Low XBj

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    Nuclear shadowing is observed in the per-nucleon cross-sections of positive muons on carbon, calcium and lead as compared to deuterium. The data were taken by Fermilab experiment E665 using inelastically scattered muons of mean incident momentum 470 GeV/c. Cross-section ratios are presented in the kinematic region 0.0001 < XBj <0.56 and 0.1 < Q**2 < 80 GeVc. The data are consistent with no significant nu or Q**2 dependence at fixed XBj. As XBj decreases, the size of the shadowing effect, as well as its A dependence, are found to approach the corresponding measurements in photoproduction.Comment: 22 pages, incl. 6 figures, to be published in Z. Phys.

    Lambda and Antilambda polarization from deep inelastic muon scattering

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    We report results of the first measurements of Lambda and Antilambda polarization produced in deep inelastic polarized muon scattering on the nucleon. The results are consistent with an expected trend towards positive polarization with increasing x_F. The polarizations of Lambda and Antilambda appear to have opposite signs. A large negative polarization for Lambda at low positive x_F is observed and is not explained by existing models.A possible interpretation is presented.Comment: 9 pages, 2 figure

    Colour reconnection in e+e- -> W+W- at sqrt(s) = 189 - 209 GeV

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    The effects of the final state interaction phenomenon known as colour reconnection are investigated at centre-of-mass energies in the range sqrt(s) ~ 189-209 GeV using the OPAL detector at LEP. Colour reconnection is expected to affect observables based on charged particles in hadronic decays of W+W-. Measurements of inclusive charged particle multiplicities, and of their angular distribution with respect to the four jet axes of the events, are used to test models of colour reconnection. The data are found to exclude extreme scenarios of the Sjostrand-Khoze Type I (SK-I) model and are compatible with other models, both with and without colour reconnection effects. In the context of the SK-I model, the best agreement with data is obtained for a reconnection probability of 37%. Assuming no colour reconnection, the charged particle multiplicity in hadronically decaying W bosons is measured to be (nqqch) = 19.38+-0.05(stat.)+-0.08 (syst.).Comment: 30 pages, 9 figures, Submitted to Euro. Phys. J.

    Determination of alpha_s using Jet Rates at LEP with the OPAL detector

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    Hadronic events produced in e+e- collisions by the LEP collider and recorded by the OPAL detector were used to form distributions based on the number of reconstructed jets. The data were collected between 1995 and 2000 and correspond to energies of 91 GeV, 130-136 GeV and 161-209 GeV. The jet rates were determined using four different jet-finding algorithms (Cone, JADE, Durham and Cambridge). The differential two-jet rate and the average jet rate with the Durham and Cambridge algorithms were used to measure alpha(s) in the LEP energy range by fitting an expression in which order alpah_2s calculations were matched to a NLLA prediction and fitted to the data. Combining the measurements at different centre-of-mass energies, the value of alpha_s (Mz) was determined to be alpha(s)(Mz)=0.1177+-0.0006(stat.)+-0.0012$(expt.)+-0.0010(had.)+-0.0032(theo.) \.Comment: 40 pages, 17 figures, Submitted to Euro. Phys. J.