9 research outputs found

    Alterations to cerebral perfusion, metabolite profiles, and neuronal morphology in the hippocampus and cortex of male and female mice during chronic exposure to a high-salt diet

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    Excess dietary salt reduces resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and vascular reactivity, which can limit the fueling of neuronal metabolism. It is hitherto unknown whether metabolic derangements induced by high-salt-diet (HSD) exposure during adulthood are reversed by reducing salt intake. In this study, male and female mice were fed an HSD from 9 to 16 months of age, followed by a normal-salt diet (ND) thereafter until 23 months of age. Controls were continuously fed either ND or HSD. CBF and metabolite profiles were determined longitudinally by arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. HSD reduced cortical and hippocampal CBF, which recovered after dietary salt normalization, and affected hippocampal but not cortical metabolite profiles. Compared to ND, HSD increased hippocampal glutamine and phosphocreatine levels and decreased creatine and choline levels. Dietary reversal only allowed recovery of glutamine levels. Histology analyses revealed that HSD reduced the dendritic arborization and spine density of cortical and hippocampal neurons, which were not recovered after dietary salt normalization. We conclude that sustained HSD exposure throughout adulthood causes permanent structural and metabolic alterations to the mouse brain that are not fully normalized by lowering dietary salt during aging

    Cognitive Impairment and Metabolite Profile Alterations in the Hippocampus and Cortex of Male and Female Mice Exposed to a Fat and Sugar-Rich Diet are Normalized by Diet Reversal

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    Diabetes impacts on brain metabolism, structure and function. Alterations in brain metabolism have been observed in obesity and diabetes models induced by exposure to diets rich in saturated fat and/or sugar and have been linked to memory impairment. However, it remains to be determined whether brain dysfunction induced by obesogenic diets results from permanent brain alterations. We tested the hypothesis that an obesogenic diet (high-fat and high-sucrose diet; HFHSD) causes reversible changes in hippocampus and cortex metabolism and alterations in behavior. Mice were exposed to HFHSD for 24 weeks or for 16 weeks followed by 8 weeks of diet normalization. Development of the metabolic syndrome, changes in behavior, and brain metabolite profiles by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) were assessed longitudinally. Control mice were fed an ingredient-matched low-fat and low-sugar diet. Mice fed the HFHSD developed obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, with a more severe phenotype in male than female mice. Relative to controls, both male and female HFHSD-fed mice showed increased anxiety-like behavior, impaired memory in object recognition tasks, but preserved working spatial memory as evaluated by spontaneous alternation in a Y-maze. Alterations in the metabolite profiles were observed both in the hippocampus and cortex but were more distinct in the hippocampus. HFHSD-induced metabolic changes included altered levels of lactate, glutamate, GABA, glutathione, taurine, N-acetylaspartate, total creatine and total choline. Notably, HFHSD-induced metabolic syndrome, anxiety, memory impairment, and brain metabolic alterations recovered upon diet normalization for 8 weeks. In conclusion, cortical and hippocampal derangements induced by long-term HFHSD consumption are reversible rather than being the result of permanent tissue damage

    Alterations to Cerebral Perfusion, Metabolite Profiles, and Neuronal Morphology in the Hippocampus and Cortex of Male and Female Mice during Chronic Exposure to a High-Salt Diet

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    Excess dietary salt reduces resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and vascular reactivity, which can limit the fueling of neuronal metabolism. It is hitherto unknown whether metabolic derangements induced by high-salt-diet (HSD) exposure during adulthood are reversed by reducing salt intake. In this study, male and female mice were fed an HSD from 9 to 16 months of age, followed by a normal-salt diet (ND) thereafter until 23 months of age. Controls were continuously fed either ND or HSD. CBF and metabolite profiles were determined longitudinally by arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. HSD reduced cortical and hippocampal CBF, which recovered after dietary salt normalization, and affected hippocampal but not cortical metabolite profiles. Compared to ND, HSD increased hippocampal glutamine and phosphocreatine levels and decreased creatine and choline levels. Dietary reversal only allowed recovery of glutamine levels. Histology analyses revealed that HSD reduced the dendritic arborization and spine density of cortical and hippocampal neurons, which were not recovered after dietary salt normalization. We conclude that sustained HSD exposure throughout adulthood causes permanent structural and metabolic alterations to the mouse brain that are not fully normalized by lowering dietary salt during aging

    Restoring myocardial infarction-induced long-term memory impairment by targeting the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator

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    BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a serious comorbidity in heart failure patients, but effective therapies are lacking. We investigated the mechanisms that alter hippocampal neurons following myocardial infarction (MI).METHODS: MI was induced in male C57Bl/6 mice by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. We utilised standard procedures to measure cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) protein levels, inflammatory mediator expression, neuronal structure, and hippocampal memory. Using in vitro and in vivo approaches, we assessed the role of neuroinflammation in hippocampal neuron degradation and the therapeutic potential of CFTR correction as an intervention.FINDINGS: Hippocampal dendrite length and spine density are reduced after MI, effects that associate with decreased neuronal CFTR expression and concomitant microglia activation and inflammatory cytokine expression. Conditioned medium from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglia (LCM) reduces neuronal cell CFTR protein expression and the mRNA expression of the synaptic regulator post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) in vitro. Blocking CFTR activity also down-regulates PSD-95 in neurons, indicating a relationship between CFTR expression and neuronal health. Pharmacologically correcting CFTR expression in vitro rescues the LCM-mediated down-regulation of PSD-95. In vivo, pharmacologically increasing hippocampal neuron CFTR expression improves MI-associated alterations in neuronal arborisation, spine density, and memory function, with a wide therapeutic time window.INTERPRETATION: Our results indicate that CFTR therapeutics improve inflammation-induced alterations in hippocampal neuronal structure and attenuate memory dysfunction following MI.FUNDING: Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation [F 2015/2112]; Swedish Research Council [VR; 2017-01243]; the German Research Foundation [DFG; ME 4667/2-1]; Hjärnfonden [FO2021-0112]; The Crafoord Foundation; Åke Wibergs Stiftelse [M19-0380], NMMP 2021 [V2021-2102]; the Albert Påhlsson Research Foundation; STINT [MG19-8469], Lund University; Canadian Institutes of Health Research [PJT-153269] and a Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario Mid-Career Investigator Award
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