35 research outputs found

    EVALUATION OF SOLITARY POLYPOID MASS IN COLORECTAL REGION WITH CLINICAL PATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION.

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    Objectives: We conducted this research to comprehensively evaluate solitary polypoids in the colorectal place by conducting a clinicopathological correlation. We aimed to determine the medical and pathological characteristics of those masses, their incidence, and the affiliation among clinical findings and histopathological features. Methods: A retrospective evaluation of patients who offered solitary polypoid masses within the colorectal area at Patna in a tertiary care centre. Inclusion criteria encompassed patients with showed colorectal polyps primarily based on endoscopic findings. Biopsy specimens acquired during endoscopic approaches have been subjected to histopathological examination. Statistical evaluation, inclusive of chi-rectangular assessments or logistic regression, is performed as appropriate to determine massive correlations. Results: Among the polyps studied, 60% were identified as adenomatous, 25% as hyperplastic, 10% as serrated, and 5% as inflammatory subtypes. Additionally, 18% of adenomatous polyps exhibited high-grade dysplasia, indicating an accelerated chance of malignancy. A  statistically enormous association between patient age and the chance of adenomatous polyps (p < 0.05), with older patients being more at risk of adenomatous lesions. Conclusion: The prevalence of adenomatous polyps and the presence of high-grade dysplasia among them reaffirm the want for vigilant tracking and intervention. These outcomes contribute to the developing frame of proof helping early detection and tailor-made control strategies for colorectal pathologies, ultimately aiming to enhance patient effects and reduce the weight of colorectal malignancies. Recommendation: More such studies are required and physicians need to take studies into consideration while assessing the symptoms and deriving the diagnosis of the study

    HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL SPECTRUM OF ENDOSCOPIC BIOPSIES IN UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL LESIONS- A PROSPECTIVE STUDY.

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    Objectives: Upper gastrointestinal tract illnesses are among the most typical issues in clinical practice. Many diseases can affect the upper GIT. One of the key components of creating a successful treatment strategy is making a correct diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal problems, which necessitates histological confirmation. Identify the range of upper gastrointestinal tract histopathological lesions and establish endoscopic biopsies as a valuable tool for accurately diagnosing and treating a variety of upper gastrointestinal tract lesions. Materials & Methods:  The endoscopic biopsies of the upper GIT were the subjects of a prospective study, and the histological evaluation took place at the Department of Pathology at a tertiary care center for over a year. Results: 326 endoscopic biopsies from a total of 288 patients were examined. Patients who were men outnumbered patients who were women. A 9-88 age range was noted. There were cases involving the esophagus (18.4%), the GE junction (3.06%), the stomach (57.05%), the neo stomach (GJstoma), and the duodenum (20.85%). 20.24 percent of cases were benign neoplasms, 18.40 percent were malignant neoplasms, and 61.34 percent were non-neoplastic. The most often diagnosed inflammatory lesion, gastritis, was identified by histopathology as having 63 cases (63%), while the majority of the time identified malignant lesion, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, had 19 instances (63.33%). Conclusion: In our study, 31.18% of neoplastic tumors and 69.89% of non-neoplastic lesions were found in the stomach (57%), which was also the most frequently used site for upper GI endoscopic biopsy. The most typical kind of stomach tumor is adenocarcinoma. Endoscopy enables the collection of biopsy samples from previously inaccessible sites without requiring a sizable resection. Recommendation: It is recommended to comprehend the variety of abnormalities that can be seen in these specimens to make the correct diagnosis and provide better patient treatment

    Macrophage: A Key Player of Teleost Immune System

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    Fish, the free-living organisms, residing in aquatic environment, are earliest vertebrates with fully developed innate and adaptive immunity. Immune organs homologous to those of mammalian immune system are found in fish. Macrophages are best known for their role in immunity, basic function of which being cytokine production and phagocytosis. Due to environmental adaptation and whole genome duplication, macrophages in teleost are differently modulated (pro-inflammatory, M1-type, and anti-inflammatory/regulatory, M2-type) and perform a variety of different functions as compared with those of mammals. Phagocytosis is a major mechanism for removing pathogens and/or foreign particles in immune system and therefore is a critical component of the innate and adaptive immune system. One of the most competent phagocytes in teleost is found to be macrophages/monocytes. Increasing experimental evidence demonstrates that teleost phagocytic cells can recognize and destroy antigens to elicit adaptive immune responses that involve multiple cytokines. A detail understanding of teleost macrophages and phagocytosis would not only help in understanding the immune mechanism but will also help in disease prevention in teleost

    Construction of Ru(II) Polypyridyl Based Macrocycles: Synthesis, Characterization, Electrochemical, Li+ Binding, Antitumour and Anti-HIV properties

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    Some ruthenium (II) polypyridyl complexes with a bis-chalcone (obtained by the condensation of 3-methyl-thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde and 4-acetyl pyridine) have been synthesized and characterized spectroscopically (IR, NMR, UV/Vis), conductimetric, elemental analysis and FAB mass data. Their luminescent, redox and Li+ binding properties have been studied. The anti-HIV and antitumour activities have also been reported

    LOCALIZATION AND ORIENTATION OF METHOXY FLAVONOIDS IN DPPC BILAYERS: EFFECT ON THEIR ANTI-PROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY

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    Objective: Flavones and flavonols are an important class of naturally occurring flavonoids. They are well known for their pharmacological activity. This activity is associated with the ability of flavones and flavonols to influence membrane–dependent processes. In this paper, we have reported localization, orientation and interaction, of four synthesized flavone/flavonols with 1, 2–dipalmitoyl–sn–glycero–3–phosphocholine (DPPC) bilayers. These are compared with standard flavone; chrysin (CHY) and flavonol Quercetin (QUE).Methods: The molecules studied are 4ʹ–methoxy flavone (MF), 3ʹ,4ʹ–dimethoxyflavone (DMF), 4ʹ–methoxyflavonol (MF–ol) and 3ʹ,4ʹ–dimethoxyflavonol (DMF–ol). The techniques used are Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and multi–nuclear NMR.Results: Highest binding to lipid bilayers is shown by DMF, followed by QUE. Based on DSC studies it is seen, that maximum interaction of MF and DMF, takes place with the hydrophobic core of lipid bilayers. DMF–ol shows formation of a heterogeneous system at higher concentrations. The 1H NMR spectra of unilamellar vesicles of DPPC, incorporated with MF, DMF and MF–ol shows significant interaction of these compounds with the alkyl chain of the hydrophobic core. MF, DMF and MF–ol acquire parallel orientation in bilayers with the B–ring pointing towards hydrophobic core, while DMF–ol acquire mixed orientation. This may be ascribed to the presence of two methoxy and one hydroxyl group on the B–ring of DMF–ol which hinders its partitioning inside the hydrophobic core of lipid bilayer. Multi–lamellar vesicles (MLV) of DPPC incorporated with flavones, show maximum increase in Chemical Shift Anisotropy in 31P spectrum of DMF. This is followed by MF. DSC.Conclusion: NMR and binding studies indicate that DMF is partitioned deeply inside the hydrophobic core, while MF, MF–ol and DMF–ol are mostly located in the vicinity of sn–glycero region. Therefore, we conclude that DMF which penetrates deepest inside the hydrophobic core also shows the highest anti–proliferative activity against K562 and MCF–7 cancer cell lines. Its activity is also better than CHY

    De novo transcriptome analysis using 454 pyrosequencing of the Himalayan Mayapple,Podophyllum hexandrum

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    Background: The Himalayan or Indian Mayapple (Podophyllum hexandrum Royle) produces podophyllotoxin, which is used in the production of semisynthetic anticancer drugs. High throughput transcriptome sequences or genomic sequence data from the Indian Mayapple are essential for further understanding of the podophyllotoxin biosynthetic pathway. Results: 454 pyrosequencing of a P. hexandrum cell culture normalized cDNA library generated 2,667,207 raw reads and 1,503,232 high quality reads, with an average read length of 138 bp. The denovo assembly was performed by Newbler using default and optimized parameters. The optimized parameter generated 40, 380 assembled sequences, comprising 12,940 contigs and 27,440 singlets which resulted in better assembly as compared to default parameters. BLASTX analysis resulted in the annotation of 40,380 contigs/singlet using a cut-off value of ≤1E-03. High similarity to Medicago truncatula using optimized parameters and to Populus trichocarpa using default parameters was noted. The Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) analysis using KEGG Automatic Annotation Server (KAAS) combined with domain analysis of the assembled transcripts revealed putative members of secondary metabolism pathways that may be involved in podophyllotoxin biosynthesis. A proposed schematic pathway for phenylpropanoids and podophyllotoxin biosynthesis was generated. Expression profiling was carried out based on fragments per kilobase of exon per million fragments (FPKM). 1036 simple sequence repeats were predicted in the P. hexandrum sequences. Sixty-nine transcripts were mapped to 99 mature and precursor microRNAs from the plant microRNA database. Around 961 transcripts containing transcription factor domains were noted. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed the peak accumulation of podophyllotoxin in 12-day cell suspension cultures. A comparative qRT-PCR analysis of phenylpropanoid pathway genes identified in the present data was performed to analyze their expression patterns in 12-day cell culture, callus and rhizome. Conclusions: The present data will help the identification of the potential genes and transcription factors involved in podophyllotoxin biosynthesis in P. hexandrum. The assembled transcripts could serve as potential candidates for marker discovery and conservation, which should form the foundations for future endeavors

    EFFECT OF METHYL SUBSTITUTION IN FLAVONES ON ITS LOCALIZATION AND INTERACTION WITH DPPC MODEL MEMBRANE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ANTI-PROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY

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    Objective: Flavones are an important class of naturally occurring molecules possessing multiple pharmacological activities. The anti-proliferative activity is associated with the ability of flavones to influence membrane–dependent processes. We have investigated the localization and interaction of the synthesized flavones: 4΄–methylflavone (4MF) and 4΄–methyl–7–hydroxy flavone (4M7HF) with 1,2–dipalmitoyl–sn–glycero–3–phosphocholine (DPPC) model membrane. Methods: Diferential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and multi nuclear NMR were used to study the interactions with DPPC model membrane. The extent of interaction of these compounds has been compared with the parent molecules: flavone (FLV) and 7–hydroxy flavone (7HF). Results: Results of DSC and NMR indicate that FLV partitions deepest inside the hydrophobic core and 7HF is localized mostly at the lipid/water interface. 4MF and 4M7HF lying in between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic core. All four molecules assume a mixed orientation with respect to the bilayer normal as indicated by chemical shifts of the lipid protons in NMR. Interaction with the membrane follows the order FLV>4MF>4M7HF>7HF. Radical scavenging activity parallels the presence of hydroxyl groups. Although FLV interacts highest with the membrane, it does not show highest antiproliferative activity. Interaction of the compounds with protons 3, 5a and 7 of DPPC is improved by the methyl substitution on the B-ring, so is the antiproliferative activity. Conclusion: That's antiproliferative activity of the compounds is at least partially related to the interaction of these molecules with the lipid water interface region

    NMR elucidation of early folding hierarchy in HIV-1 protease

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    Folding studies on proteases by the conventional hydrogen exchange experiments are severely hampered because of interference from the autolytic reaction in the interpretation of the exchange data. We report here NMR identification of the hierarchy of early conformational transitions (folding propensities) in HIV-1 protease by systematic monitoring of the changes in the state of the protein as it is subjected to different degrees of denaturation by guanidine hydrochloride. Secondary chemical shifts, HN-Hα coupling constants, 1H-15N nuclear Overhauser effects, and 15N transverse relaxation parameters have been used to report on the residual structural propensities, motional restrictions, conformational transitions, etc., and the data suggest that even under the strongest denaturing conditions (6 m guanidine) hydrophobic clusters as well as different native and non-native secondary structural elements are transiently formed. These constitute the folding nuclei, which include residues spanning the active site, the hinge region, and the dimerization domain. Interestingly, the proline residues influence the structural propensities, and the small amino acids, Gly and Ala, enhance the flexibility of the protein. On reducing the denaturing conditions, partially folded forms appear. The residues showing high folding propensities are contiguous along the sequence at many locations or are in close proximity on the native protein structure, suggesting a certain degree of local cooperativity in the conformational transitions. The dimerization domain, the flaps, and their hinges seem to exhibit the highest folding propensities. The data suggest that even the early folding events may involve many states near the surface of the folding funnel

    Povezanost genskih varijanti akvaporina 7 s kvalitetom sjemena u murrah bivola

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    The Aquaporin 7 (AQP7) gene, a member of the aqua-glyceroporins, was characterised using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis, in order to investigate the association of genetic variants of the AQP7 gene with semen quality in Murrah bulls. In this study, genomic DNA was extracted from the blood of Murrah bulls (n = 69) using the high salt method. Sequence data were analyzed using Bio Edit software (version 7.0.5) for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Statistical analysis was carried out using repeated GLM procedure measures (SAS 9.3). Analysis revealed 17 different SSCP variants in the AQP7 gene in Murrah buffaloes. Three unique SSCP band patterns were observed in exons 1 and 4. Exons 5, 7 and 8 showed five, four and two unique SSCP band patterns, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed a total of 20 SNPs (8 in exonic and 12 in intronic region). PCR-SSCP variants of exon 5 were significantly associated (P<0.01) with sperm concentration. SSCP variants of exons 5 and 8 were associated (P<0.05) with sperm viability and post thaw motility (PTM), respectively. The study revealed a high degree of genetic variability in the AQP7 gene in Murrah bulls. The SSCP variants observed are associated with semen parameters which suggests the possibility of using the AQP7 gene as a candidate gene for identification of markers for semen quality traits in buffaloes.Gen akvaporin 7 (AQP7), koji pripada akvagliceroporinima, analiziran je kombinacijom lančane reakcije polimerazom i utvrđivanjem polimorfizma jednolančane konformacije (PCR-SSCP) s ciljem da se istraži povezanost genskih varijanti s kvalitetom sjemena u Murrah bivola. Genomska DNA izdvojena je iz krvi bivola (n = 69) high salt metodom. Za otkrivanje polimorfizma pojedinačnih nukleotida (SNP) sekvencije su analizirane programom Bio Edit (verzija 7.0.5). Statistička analiza provedena je GLM procedurom ponovljenih mjerenja (SAS 9.3). Analiza je pokazala 17 različitih SSCP varijanti AQP7gena u Murrah bivola. Tri jedinstvena SSCP rasporeda linija utvrđena su u egzonima 1 i 4. Egzoni 5, 7 i 8 pokazali su pet, četiri i dva jedinstvena SSCP rasporeda linija. Sekvenciranje je pokazalo ukupno 20 SNP-a (8 u egzonima i 12 u intronima). PCR-SSCP varijante egzona 5 statistički su značajno povezane (P<0,01) s koncentracijom sjemena. SSCP varijante egzona 5 i 8 značajno su povezane (P<0,05) s vijabilnošću spermija i njihovom pokretljivošću nakon odmrzavanja. Istraživanje je pokazalo visok stupanj genetičke varijabilnosti akvaporina 7 u Murrah bivola. Utvrđene SSCP varijante koje su povezane s pokazateljima kakvoće sjemena upućuju na mogućnost upotrebe akvaporina 7 gena kao kandidatnog gena za identifikaciju biljega kvalitete sjemena bivola
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