9 research outputs found

    Metronidazole induced neurotoxicity: a case report

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    Metronidazole is a well-known antimicrobial agent, used for the treatment of anaerobic bacterial and protozoal infections. It is generally well tolerated with common side effects like nausea, dizziness, headache and metallic taste in the mouth. But prolonged use of metronidazole can cause neurotoxicity like ataxic gait, dysarthria, seizures and encephalopathy. Here, we are reporting a case of a 60 years old male patient who was a chronic alcoholic with liver abscess and he developed acute ataxia and dysarthria after four weeks use of metronidazole. The causality of metronidazole in this case was ‚Äúprobable‚ÄĚ with score 7 as per Naranjo scale. The patient was managed by discontinuing the metronidazole and there was considerable improvement in his gait and speech after that. The case was recorded properly in adverse drug reaction reporting form and was sent to nearby adverse drug reaction (ADR) monitoring centre

    Immunosuppressive drugs in renal transplantation

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    A kidney transplant, sometimes known as a renal transplant, is the treatment of choice for kidney failure at end stage renal disease (ESRD). The renal transplant surgery is followed by a lifetime course of immunosuppressive agents, divided into initial induction phase and later maintenance phase. It is seen that the risk of acute rejection is maximum in the initial months after transplantation (induction phase) and then reduces later (maintenance phase). In induction phase there is use of high-intensity immunosuppression immediately after transplantation, when the risk of rejection is maximum and then the dose reduced for long- term therapy. The main challenge in the renal transplantation community is long- term transplant survival. Long-term graft loss is mainly due to acute and chronic graft rejection, and also due to complications of immunosuppressive therapy. Currently, there is triple therapy as conventional immunosuppressive protocol: a calcineurin inhibitor, an antimetabolite agent, and a corticosteroid. The main aim of development of new immunosuppressive agents is not only improvement of short- term outcomes but also to increase the long- term graft survival by less nephrotoxicity, and minimal side-effects

    Open/Closed String Dualities and Seiberg Duality from Geometric Transitions in M-theory

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    We propose a general method to study open/closed string dualities from transitions in M theory which is valid for a large class of geometrical configurations. By T-duality we can transform geometrically engineered configurations into N = 1 brane configurations and study the transitions of the corresponding branes by lifting the configurations to M-theory. We describe the transformed degenerated M5 branes and extract the field theory information on gluino condensation by factorization of the Seiberg-Witten curve. We also include massive flavors and orientifolds and discuss Seiberg duality which appears in this case as a birational flop. After the transition, the Seiberg duality becomes an abelian electric-magnetic duality.Comment: 30 pages, 3 figures, Late

    Migration in India: A Review

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    Global Survey of Outcomes of Neurocritical Care Patients: Analysis of the PRINCE Study Part 2

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    BACKGROUND: Neurocritical care is devoted to the care of critically ill patients with acute neurological or neurosurgical emergencies. There is limited information regarding epidemiological data, disease characteristics, variability of clinical care, and in-hospital mortality of neurocritically ill patients worldwide. We addressed these issues in the Point PRevalence In Neurocritical CarE (PRINCE) study, a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. METHODS: We recruited patients from various intensive care units (ICUs) admitted on a pre-specified date, and the investigators recorded specific clinical care activities they performed on the subjects during their first 7¬†days of admission or discharge (whichever came first) from their ICUs and at hospital discharge. In this manuscript, we analyzed the final data set of the study that included patient admission characteristics, disease type and severity, ICU resources, ICU and hospital length of stay, and in-hospital mortality. We present descriptive statistics to summarize data from the case report form. We tested differences between geographically grouped data using parametric and nonparametric testing as appropriate. We used a multivariable logistic regression model to evaluate factors associated with in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 1545 patients admitted to 147 participating sites from 31 countries of which most were from North America (69%, N‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ1063). Globally, there was variability in patient characteristics, admission diagnosis, ICU treatment team and resource allocation, and in-hospital mortality. Seventy-three percent of the participating centers were academic, and the most common admitting diagnosis was subarachnoid hemorrhage (13%). The majority of patients were male (59%), a half of whom had at least two comorbidities, and median Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 13. Factors associated with in-hospital mortality included age (OR 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.04); lower GCS (OR 1.20; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.16 for every point reduction in GCS); pupillary reactivity (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.09 to 3.23 for bilateral unreactive pupils); admission source (emergency room versus direct admission [OR 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3 to 3.75]; admission from a general ward versus direct admission [OR 5.85; 95% CI, 2.75 to 12.45; and admission from another ICU versus direct admission [OR 3.34; 95% CI, 1.27 to 8.8]); and the absence of a dedicated neurocritical care unit (NCCU) (OR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.47). CONCLUSION: PRINCE is the first study to evaluate care patterns of neurocritical patients worldwide. The data suggest that there is a wide variability in clinical care resources and patient characteristics. Neurological severity of illness and the absence of a dedicated NCCU are independent predictors of in-patient mortality.status: publishe

    Students' participation in collaborative research should be recognised

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    Letter to the editor
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