22,106 research outputs found

    An experimental study of surface pressure fluctuations in a separating turbulent boundary layer

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    Measurements of streamwise velocity fluctuation and surface pressure fluctuation spectra and wavespeeds are reported for a well-documented separating turbulent boundary layer. Because a portion of the acoustic pressure fluctuations is the same across the nominally two-dimensional turbulent flow, it is possible to decompose two microphone signals and obtain directly the turbulent flow contributions to the surface pressure spectra. The rms surface pressure fluctuation p' and spectra phi(omega) increase through the adverse pressure gradient attached flow region and the detached flow zone and scale on the maximum turbulent shearing stress tau(M); p'/tau(M) increases to the detachment location and decreases downstream due to the rapid movement of the pressure-fluctuation-producing motions away from the wall after the beginning of intermittent backflow. At lower frequencies for the attached flow phi(omega) is approximately omega to the -0.7 while phi(omega) is approximately omega to the -3 at higher frequencies. After the beginning of intermittent backflow, phi(omega) varies with omega at low frequencies and omega to the -3 at high frequencies; farther downstream the lower frequency range varies with omega to the 2.4. The surface pressure fluctuation celerity for the attached flow increases with frequency and agrees with the semi-logarithmic overlap equation of Panton and Linebarger. After the beginning of the separation process, the wavespeed decreases because of the oscillation of the instantaneous wavespeed direction and the streamwise coherence decreases drastically

    Understanding co-operative R&D activity: evidence from four European countries

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    This paper investigates co-operative research activity by firms using data from the 3rd Community Innovation Survey for four countries, France, Germany, Spain and the UK. We build on the Cassiman and Veugelers (CV) (2002) study of Belgian manufacturing firms, by incorporating information on the service sector, and considering the role of public support in affecting firms’ decisions to co-operate. Our results support those in CV, in that we find a positive relationship between the likelihood of undertaking co-operative R&D and both incoming knowledge spillovers and the extent to which firms find strategic methods important in appropriating the returns to innovative activity. We find that public support is positively related to the probability of undertaking co-operative agreements particularly with regard to the likelihood of co-operation with the research base. We find some evidence, in particular for Spain, that firms carry out co-operative R&D to overcome excessive perceived risks and financial constraints

    The cosmic evolution of radio-AGN feedback to z=1

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    This paper presents the first measurement of the radio luminosity function of 'jet-mode' (radiatively-inefficient) radio-AGN out to z=1, in order to investigate the cosmic evolution of radio-AGN feedback. Eight radio source samples are combined to produce a catalogue of 211 radio-loud AGN with 0.5<z<1.0, which are spectroscopically classified into jet-mode and radiative-mode (radiatively-efficient) AGN classes. Comparing with large samples of local radio-AGN from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the cosmic evolution of the radio luminosity function of each radio-AGN class is independently derived. Radiative-mode radio-AGN show an order of magnitude increase in space density out to z~1 at all luminosities, consistent with these AGN being fuelled by cold gas. In contrast, the space density of jet-mode radio-AGN decreases with increasing redshift at low radio luminosities (L_1.4 < 1e24 W/Hz) but increases at higher radio luminosities. Simple models are developed to explain the observed evolution. In the best-fitting models, the characteristic space density of jet-mode AGN declines with redshift in accordance with the declining space density of massive quiescent galaxies, which fuel them via cooling of gas in their hot haloes. A time delay of 1.5-2 Gyr may be present between the quenching of star formation and the onset of jet-mode radio-AGN activity. The behaviour at higher radio luminosities can be explained either by an increasing characteristic luminosity of jet-mode radio-AGN activity with redshift (roughly as (1+z) cubed) or if the jet-mode radio-AGN population also includes some contribution of cold-gas-fuelled sources seen at a time when their accretion rate was low. Higher redshifts measurements would distinguish between these possibilities.Comment: Accepted for publication in MNRA

    Effect of terbutaline on hyperpnoea-induced bronchoconstriction and urinary club cell protein 16 in athletes

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    This article is made available through the Brunel Open Access Publishing Fund and is distributed by the Creative Commons CC-BY 3.0 license, under which all are free to reuse or distribute the article under the condition that this original publication must be cited.Repeated injury of the airway epithelium caused by hyperpnoea of poorly conditioned air has been proposed as a key factor in the pathogenesis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in athletes. In animals, the short-acting β2-agonist terbutaline has been shown to reduce dry airflow-induced bronchoconstriction and the associated shedding of airway epithelial cells. Our aim was to test the efficacy of inhaled terbutaline in attenuating hyperpnoea-induced bronchoconstriction and airway epithelial injury in athletes. Twenty-seven athletes with EIB participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Athletes completed an 8-min eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea (EVH) test with dry air on two separate days 15 min after inhaling 0.5 mg terbutaline or a matching placebo. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and urinary concentration of the club cell (Clara cell) protein 16 (CC16, a marker of airway epithelial perturbation) were measured before and up to 60 min after EVH. The maximum fall in FEV1 of 17 ± 8% (SD) on placebo was reduced to 8 ± 5% following terbutaline (P < 0.001). Terbutaline gave bronchoprotection (i.e., post-EVH FEV1 fall <10%) to 22 (81%) athletes. EVH caused an increase in urinary excretion of CC16 in both conditions (P < 0.001), and terbutaline significantly reduced this rise (pre- to postchallenge CC16 increase 416 ± 495 pg/μmol creatinine after placebo vs. 315 ± 523 pg/μmol creatinine after terbutaline, P = 0.016). These results suggest that the inhalation of a single therapeutic dose of terbutaline offers significant protection against hyperpnoea-induced bronchoconstriction and attenuates acute airway epithelial perturbation in athletes.World Anti Doping Agenc

    Scattering properties of Venus' surface

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    Radar backscatter functions Sigma-(carat)(sub 0)(phi) for incidence angles between 0 less than or equal to phi less than or equal to 4-10 deg were derived from Magellan altimetry radar echoes. The procedure includes constrained solution of a system of simultaneous equations for which the echo-spectrum and echo time profile are inputs. A practical and workable set of constraints was applied; optimization and improved results are expected as the analysis matures. The scattering functions yield information on small-scale surface structures (tens of centimeters to tens of meters) but averaged over hundreds of sq km. RMS surface slopes derived from fits of analytic functions to the Sigma-(carat)(sub 0)(phi) results were converted to map form and show patterns similar to those reported using other techniques. While all three forms are found on Venus, fit residuals imply that an exponential scattering function matches data better than either the Hagfors or Gaussian form in most areas, although the Hagfors function may be a better descriptor at some sites. Limited study of image data indicates that average backscatter cross section, and possibly its slope, can be derived at oblique angles (17 deg less than or equal to phi less than or equal to 45 deg). Offsets of the echo peak in altimetry spectra are surprisingly common and are loosely correlated with Venus topography, but no cause for this phenomenon was identified

    Determination of the Telluric Water Vapor Absorption Correction for Astronomical Data Obtained from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

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    The amount of telluric water vapor along the line of sight of the Kuiper Airborne Observatory telescope as obtained concommitantly on 23 flights is compared with the NASA-Ames Michelson interferometer and with the NOAA-Boulder radiometer. A strong correlation between the two determinations exists, and a method for computing the atmospheric transmission for a given radiometer reading is established

    Nuclear quadrupole resonances in compact vapor cells: the crossover from the NMR to the NQR interaction regimes

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    We present the first experimental study that maps the transformation of nuclear quadrupole resonances from the pure nuclear quadrupole regime to the quadrupole-perturbed Zeeman regime. The transformation presents an interesting quantum-mechanical problem, since the quantization axis changes from being aligned along the axis of the electric-field gradient tensor to being aligned along the magnetic field. We achieve large nuclear quadrupole shifts for I = 3/2 131-Xe by using a 1 mm^3 cubic cell with walls of different materials. When the magnetic and quadrupolar interactions are of comparable size, perturbation theory is not suitable for calculating the transition energies. Rather than use perturbation theory, we compare our data to theoretical calculations using a Liouvillian approach and find excellent agreement.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    Numerical comparison of pipe-column-separation models

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    Results comparing six column-separation numerical models for simulating localized vapor cavities and distributed vaporous cavitation in pipelines are presented. The discrete vapor-cavity model (DVCM) is shown to be quite sensitive to selected input parameters. For short pipeline systems, the maximum pressure rise following column separation can vary markedly for small changes in wave speed, friction factor, diameter, initial velocity, length of pipe, or pipe slope. Of the six numerical models, three perform consistently over a broad number of reaches. One of them, the discrete gas-cavity model, is recommended for general use as it is least sensitive to input parameters or to the selected discretization of the pipeline. Three models provide inconsistent estimates of the maximum pressure rise as the number of reaches is increased; however, these models do give consistent results provided the ratio of maximum cavity size to reach volume is kept below 10%.Angus R. Simpson and Anton Bergan

    Evaluation of ivermectin antiviral activity against avian infectious bronchitis virus using a chicken embryo model

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    Ivermectin is widely used in both animals and humans as an FDA-approved parasiticide. Ivermectin has also been reported to have antiviral activity against several viruses including coronaviruses. There are reports that indicate ivermectin may have some role in diminishing the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, but the evidence is inconclusive. The objective of this study was to determine if ivermectin was efficacious in inhibiting avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV, a coronavirus) replication in chicken embryos. Briefly, our approach was to use the Massachusetts vaccine strain of IBV in combination with various doses of ivermectin and then inoculate these preparations into chicken embryos to determine if IBV replication was inhibited. The embryos were examined for IBV lesions and samples of chorioallantoic fluid were collected for IBV RT-PCR analysis. Several trials were performed, and the results of our study indicate that ivermectin did not inhibit IBV replication in chicken embryos
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