290 research outputs found

    Estudo de altera√ß√Ķes gen√©ticas no NAPRT e NAMPT em cancro

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    NAD+ is both a co-enzyme for oxidation-reduction reactions and a substrate for NAD+ -consuming enzymes and therefore, it is critical for many cellular processes. In mammalian cells, intracellular NAD+ can be synthesized through either de novo synthesis, from tryptophan, or via salvage pathways, from other precursors, such as NAM and NA which are converted by NAMPT and NAPRT, respectively. Changes in the NAD+ content in cells and tissues are linked with a wide variety of diseases, including cancer. A large proportion of cancer cases is still diagnosed only at an advanced stage and thus, there is a need for new affordable, specific, sensitive and non-invasive biomarkers. Salivary biomarkers can meet these criteria and thus, are promising tools in cancer screening, diagnostic and prognostic. The main objective of this work was to study genetic alterations in NAMPT and NAPRT in DNA samples from healthy donors and in samples from cancer patients. For this, DNA and RNA extraction from saliva samples was optimized, as a starting point to study this biofluid as a source for cancer biomarkers. The results from the bioinformatics analysis showed that the frequency of alterations in NAPRT and NAMPT genes is low in the cancer contexts investigated. Nevertheless, it is still necessary to further study the impact that these alterations might have. There is also a great need to investigate and optimize methods for saliva studies, in order to promote it as a liquid biopsy of regular use in clinical settings.O NAD+ funciona como coenzima em rea√ß√Ķes de oxida√ß√£o-redu√ß√£o e como um substrato para determinadas enzimas e tem, portanto, um papel cr√≠tico em muitos processos celulares. Nas c√©lulas de mam√≠feros, o NAD+ intracelular pode ser sintetizado atrav√©s da s√≠ntese de novo, a partir do triptofano, ou atrav√©s das vias de ‚Äúreciclagem‚ÄĚ, a partir de outros precursores, como NAM e NA, que s√£o convertidos por NAMPT e NAPRT, respetivamente. Altera√ß√Ķes no conte√ļdo de NAD+ em c√©lulas e tecidos est√£o relacionadas com uma ampla variedade de doen√ßas, incluindo cancro. Uma grande propor√ß√£o dos casos de tumores ainda √© diagnosticada j√° num estadio avan√ßado e, por isso, s√£o necess√°rios novos biomarcadores economicamente acess√≠veis, espec√≠ficos, sens√≠veis e n√£o invasivos. Os biomarcadores salivares conseguem cumprir esses crit√©rios e s√£o, assim, mol√©culas promissoras para o rastreio, diagn√≥stico e progn√≥stico de cancro. O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar altera√ß√Ķes gen√©ticas no NAMPT e NAPRT em amostras de DNA de dadores saud√°veis e em amostras de pacientes com cancro. Para isto, foi otimizada a extra√ß√£o de DNA e RNA a partir de amostras de saliva, como ponto de partida para estudar este biofluido como fonte de biomarcadores de cancro. Os resultados da an√°lise bioinform√°tica mostraram que a frequ√™ncia de altera√ß√Ķes nos genes NAPRT e NAMPT √© baixa nos contextos de cancro investigados. Ainda assim, ser√£o necess√°rios mais estudos para analisar o impacto que estas altera√ß√Ķes poder√£o ter. H√° tamb√©m uma grande necessidade de investigar e otimizar m√©todos para estudos em saliva, a fim de promov√™-la como bi√≥psia l√≠quida de uso generalizado em ambiente cl√≠nico.Mestrado em Biomedicina Molecula

    Validação da FACES IV: o funcionamento da família em diferentes etapas do ciclo vital

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    Objetivos: 1) traduzir e validar a Escala de Avalia√ß√£o da Flexibilidade e Coes√£o Familiar ‚Äď Vers√£o IV (FACES IV) para a popula√ß√£o portuguesa; 2) analisar as diferen√ßas na perce√ß√£o dos sujeitos acerca do funcionamento da sua fam√≠lia, em cada uma das etapas do ciclo vital. Participantes: Trezentas e oitenta e sete (387) fam√≠lias, num total de 1089 sujeitos com idades superiores a 12 anos, recrutados por conveni√™ncia a partir do m√©todo de bola de neve. Instrumentos: Escala de Avalia√ß√£o da Flexibilidade e Coes√£o Familiar ‚Äď Vers√£o IV (FACES IV), Escala Familiar de Autorresposta ‚Äď Vers√£o II (SFI), Escala de APGAR Familiar e a Escala de Ajustamento Di√°dico (RDAS). Resultados: A tradu√ß√£o da FACES IV apresentou uma boa capacidade de corretamente avaliar as fam√≠lias funcionais e uma mediana capacidade de avaliar as fam√≠lias disfuncionais, face √† necessidade de uma mais completa e posterior adequa√ß√£o das subescalas Emaranhada e R√≠gida para a cultura portuguesa. Foram encontradas diferen√ßas significativas no funcionamento das fam√≠lias em diferentes etapas do ciclo vital, nomeadamente nas dimens√Ķes da coes√£o familiar, lideran√ßa, sa√ļde/compet√™ncia, comunica√ß√£o e expressividade emocional. A coes√£o nas fam√≠lias diminu√≠a ao longo do ciclo vital, apresentando valores mais altos na etapa de fam√≠lia com filhos na escola e mais baixos na etapa de fam√≠lia com filhos adolescentes e fam√≠lia com filhos adultos. A lideran√ßa na etapa de forma√ß√£o do casal era significativamente mais baixa do que nas etapas de fam√≠lia com filhos na escola e fam√≠lia com filhos adolescentes. As fam√≠lias demonstraram possuir uma maior capacidade de compet√™ncia e sa√ļde na etapa de fam√≠lia com filhos na escola do que na etapa de forma√ß√£o do casal. A comunica√ß√£o e expressividade emocional na fam√≠lia diminu√≠am ao longo do ciclo vital, com valores significativamente mais altos para a etapa de fam√≠lia com filhos na escola e mais baixos nas etapas de fam√≠lia com filhos adolescentes e fam√≠lia com filhos adultos. / Objectives: 1) translate and validate the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale ‚Äď version IV (FACES IV) for the Portuguese population. 2) analyse differences in individual‚Äôs perception of family functioning, in different stages of the family life cycle. Participants: Three hundred and eighty seven (387) families, in a total of 1089 individuals with ages higher than 12, recruited by convenience using the snowball method. Instruments: the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale ‚Äď version IV (FACES IV), Self-Report Family Inventory ‚Äď Version II (SFI-II), Family APGAR and the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS). Results: The FACES IV translation proved to be very capable of assessing functional families and somewhat capable of assessing dysfunctional families, giving the need of a further and more complete adaptation of the Enmeshed and Rigid subscales to Portuguese culture. Significant differences in family functioning, within different stages of the family life cycle, were found, namely in family cohesion, leadership, health/competence, communication and emotional expressiveness. Cohesion in families decreased along the family life cycle, showing higher values in the family with children in school stage and lower values in the family with adolescent children and family with adult children stages. Leadership proved to be significantly lower in the couple formation stage than the family with children and school and family with adolescent children stages. Families showed a higher competence and health when in the stage of family with children in school compared to the couple formation stage. Quality of communication and emotional expressiveness decreased along the family life cycle, with values significantly higher for families with children in school and lower for families with adolescent children and adult children

    Science communication in UNESCO global geoparks

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    Research in science communication has brought many contributions to improving society's relationship with science, unfortunately very little incorporated in geoscience communication. Science communication and public engagement are among the main priorities of UNESCO Global Geoparks, privileged territories for science, culture, education, and sustainable development. Geological heritage of international relevance, integrated strategies for geodiversity, together with geoscientific research and geoconservation make UGGps ideal arenas for effective geoscience communication. Today 197 UGGps in 48 countries are developing tremendous endeavours to bring society closer to science, being a reference for the communication of geosciences on a global scale. In this sense, we start to study these contexts, conducting a comprehensive analysis on science communication practices in UGGps, including literature review and documentation analysis. This stage has already revealed a great variety of strategies, tools, approaches and terminology, which allowed the identification of theoretical communication models and paradigms. Besides it was also possible to recognize the diversity of terminology and different understandings or scopes referring to science comunicação. In a second phase, a benchmarking methodology is being conducted to strategically analyse best practices in selected Geoparks. The data collection includes site visits, direct observation and interviews applying specific data collection instruments for qualitative analysis. This more refined analysis of the territories is finding relevant strategies and solutions, regarding situ interpretation, hands on modules, films, digital and augmented reality tools, targeted communication, and storylines, among many others. This study is part of a larger project that included the identification and discussion of the main challenges on geoscience communication (Rodrigues et al 2023a) and the study of the representations and practices of geoscientists (Rodrigues et al 2023b). Previous and new results will be integrated in order to develop a strategy to promote, stimulate and improve geoscience communication, addressing the identified challenges and meeting the specific segmented needs. Although the strategy to be developed fits into the specific context of Geoparks, we think that this kind of strategy, currently non-existent even in other areas, could contribute as a reference for the promotion of geosciences and the sustainability of planet Earth on a global level, and could be used as a parameter in UGGps, but also in other contexts

    Emotional labor in healthcare: the role of work perceptions and personality traits

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    Using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model as the theoretical framework, this study investigates how the perception of the work environment predicts the emotional labor strategies, and the moderating effect of personality traits on this relationship. Data were collected through the Portuguese Nurses Council, yielding 180 valid questionnaires. The perceptions of the work environment were measured through the Practice Environment Scale for Nurse Working Index (PES-NWI). Emotional labor strategies and the personality traits, in turn, were measured through the Emotional Labor Scale (ELS) and the Big Five Inventory Scale (BFIS) respectively. The hypothesized model was tested through a hierarchical multiple regression and bias-corrected bootstrap analyses (using 1000 bootstrap samples) with the PROCESS macros. The results reveal a negative relationship between perception of the work environment and the adoption of a deep acting strategy. This relationship happens when individuals score high in consciousness and openness and when individuals score low in extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. When healthcare institutions offer a good work environment, nurses try to do their utmost to make their emotions correspond with what is expected of them. Thus, healthcare managers need to better understand how organizational policies and practices are translated into the work environment.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    How can geoscience communication foster public engagement with geoconservation?

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    Geoscience and geodiversity, two sides of the same coin, deal with very poor social visibility and recognition. Ensuring the protection of geodiversity is not only in the geoscientists’ hands and all of society needs to be involved. Therefore, public engagement with geodiversity demands new solutions and a change of paradigm in geoscience communication. Most of the science communication activities undertaken by geoscientists, even when they use modern approaches and technologies, are mainly designed based on empirical experience, laid on didactical approaches and assuming the public’s knowledge deficit. In order to engage the society with geodiversity, it is not enough to focus on scientific literacy and deficit models in which lack of knowledge is considered to be the main obstacle between science and society. It is fundamental to establish a commitment between society and science based on dialogue where lay public is not seen anymore as a single entity with a knowledge deficit. Non-experts must become also protagonists in scientific decisions with social impact and integrate their knowledge and concerns in public participation and decision-making. Engagement with geoscience and geodiversity would benefit from more effective and targeted communication strategies, with different approaches to engage with com- munities, local stakeholders, media, students and teachers, scientific community, tourists, politicians or policy-makers, and groups with different concerns and distinct relations with science. In the last 20 years, science communication research has made many relevant contributions in order to promote more participatory processes with which society is asked to engage. Regarding geoscience communication as a discipline, it is a very recent Earth science branch that also incorporates social science, behavioral science, and science communication, but still lacks a clear and formal definition. This study provides a comprehensive review of the literature in order to develop a conceptual framework for geoscience communication research, identifying the main challenges and opportunities.Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) - projects UIDB/04683/2020 and UIDP/04683/2020

    The influence of WOM and peer interaction in the decision-making process of Generation Z within the family

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    Generation Z is the first generation who has grown up in the middle of an era of developed information technology, being one of the most critical users of social networking sites (SNS), constantly engaging in online exchanging of information and conversation between peers. The study of this generation’s consumer behaviors is an opportunity for marketers to get to know their preferences, identify the major influences on their decision-making process, and understand how to target them more effectively. In this paper, we designed a survey to study the effect of peer interaction and word-of-mouth (WOM) on the different stages of Generation Z’s decision-making process, and to understand how this generation’s preferences are formed. Data was analyzed through Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Structural Equations Modeling. Results showed that peer interaction positively influences Generation Z’s decision-making, most predominantly in the first stages of the process, while the influence of WOM was not statistically supported. Other factors should be considered in the future, to uncover the different determinants of generation Z’s decisions, so that marketers can develop more accurate strategies to best target this younger generation.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Estudo da relação entre estilos de agressividade, comportamentos de risco na condução e resolução de problemas em condutores

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    Orienta√ß√£o: Joana Brites RosaO ‚ÄúRoad Rage‚ÄĚ tem sido cada vez mais associado como fator de risco nos acidentes rodovi√°rios. Assim torna-se importante avaliar ambos em rela√ß√£o √†s estrat√©gias de coping para seja poss√≠vel compreender melhor que a√ß√Ķes de risco propiciam mais ao envolvimento em acidentes. Participaram na mesma 216 sujeitos sendo 96 do sexo masculino com uma m√©dia de idades de 29,56 (DP=10,189) e 120 do sexo feminino, com m√©dia de idade de 31,54 (DP=11,027). Como medidas de avalia√ß√£o recorreu-se ao Driver Stress Profile (DSP; Larson, J. 2000; vers√£o traduzida por Rosendo & Rosa, 2015), Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ; Reason et. Al., 1990; vers√£o traduzida e adaptada por Brites, 2006) e o Invent√°rio de Resolu√ß√£o de Problemas (IRP; Vaz Serra, 1987). De acordo com os resultados, a puni√ß√£o, raiva, impaci√™ncia e competi√ß√£o encontram-se positivamente associadas aos comportamentos de riscos e a sua rela√ß√£o com a resolu√ß√£o de problemas tamb√©m indicou uma correla√ß√£o positiva nas vari√°veis raiva, competi√ß√£o e puni√ß√£o, existindo uma associa√ß√£o negativa entre a impaci√™ncia e a atitude ativa. Relativamente √† associa√ß√£o entre os comportamentos de risco e a resolu√ß√£o de problemas, as vari√°veis viola√ß√Ķes n√£o intencionais, erros falta de aten√ß√£o e procura de sensa√ß√Ķes encontram-se positivamente associadas, ao inv√©s das viola√ß√Ķes e lapsos, que revelaram uma associa√ß√£o negativa.The concept of "Road Rage" has been increasigly studied and thus, associated as a risk factor in road accidents. Having the possibility to integrate in risk behavior designation, becomes important to evaluate both with regard to coping strategies in order to better understand each risk actions provide further involvement in accidents. In this research participated 216 subjects and 96 male with a mean age of 29.56 (SD = 10,189) and 120 females, with a mean age of 31.54 (SD = 11.027). Was used as measures Driver Stress Profile (DSP; Larson, J. 2000; translated version by Rosendo & Rosa, 2014), Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ;. Reason et al., 1990; translated and adapted version by Brites, 2006 ) and Inventory Problem Solving (IRP; Vaz Serra; 1987). According to the results , the punishment , anger , impatience and competition are positively associated with risk behaviors and their relationship with problem resolution also indicated a positive correlation in anger variables , competition and punishment and there is a negative association between impatience and active attitude . Regarding the association between risk behaviors and problem solving , the variables unintentional violations , errors, lack of attention and sensation seeking are positively associated , instead of the breaches and lapses which revealed a negative association

    A responsabilidade social, o Governo das Sociedades e a relação entre ambos

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    A responsabilidade social das organiza√ß√Ķes evoluiu de uma vis√£o restrita para um conceito complexo com diversas vertentes, que tem vindo a obter cada vez mais import√Ęncia nas tomadas de decis√Ķes das empresas, expressando-se como um compromisso das empresas com pessoas e valores humanos, como tamb√©m preocupa√ß√Ķes genu√≠nas com o meio ambiente. O governo das sociedades tem assumido cada vez maior import√Ęncia ao longo dos anos principalmente devido a esc√Ęndalos financeiros, como tamb√©m ao aumento do controlo e exig√™ncias pelos restantes stakeholders. Integra um conjunto de regras e procedimentos com o objetivo de otimizar o desempenho de uma organiza√ß√£o, com observ√Ęncia de princ√≠pios como a transpar√™ncia e a responsabiliza√ß√£o. Estudando a rela√ß√£o entre a responsabilidade social e o governo das sociedades, verifica-se que ambos t√™m sido investigados de forma independente, por√©m diversos autores consideraram a exist√™ncia de ind√≠cios da sua complementaridade. Na presente investiga√ß√£o √© utilizada uma hip√≥tese do estudo de Jamali, Safieddine e Rabbath (2008), adequando-a ao contexto empresarial Portugu√™s, com a finalidade de compreender a perspetiva das empresas do PSI 20 (Portuguese Stock Index) quanto √† rela√ß√£o entre a responsabilidade social e o governo das sociedades tendo em conta tr√™s modelos emp√≠ricos. O estudo de caso apresentado √© de natureza explorat√≥ria e descritiva, com recurso a uma an√°lise qualitativa e quantitativa, atrav√©s de um inqu√©rito por question√°rio e do uso de t√©cnicas de observa√ß√£o. A amostra √© constitu√≠da pelas empresas cotadas no PSI 20 √† data de 31 de dezembro 2019, sendo o per√≠odo de an√°lise de 2017 a 2019, participando na investiga√ß√£o nove dessas empresas de diversos setores de atividade. Tendo em conta as empresas do PSI 20 analisadas, conclui-se que as mesmas consideram a exist√™ncia de uma rela√ß√£o entre a responsabilidade social e o governo das sociedades, traduzindo-se esta liga√ß√£o pelo governo das sociedades e a responsabilidade social como parte do continuum.The social responsibility of organizations has evolved from a restricted vision to a complex concept with several strands, which has been gaining more and more importance in the decision-making of companies, expressing itself as a commitment of the companies with people and human values, as well as genuine concerns with the environment. The corporate governance has become increasingly important over the years mainly due to financial scandals, but also due to the increase control and requirements by the remaining stakeholders. It integrates a set of rules and procedures with the purpose of optimizing the performance of an organization, observing principles such as transparency and accountability. Studying the relationship between social responsibility and corporate governance, both have been investigated independently, but several authors considered the existence of evidence of complementarity. The following investigation uses a hypothesis of the study of Jamali, Safieddine and Rabbath (2008), adapting it to the Portuguese business context, in order to understand the perspective of PSI 20 companies regarding the relationship between social responsibility and corporate governance taking into account three empirical models. The case study presented is exploratory and descriptive nature, using a qualitative and quantitative analysis, through a questionnaire survey and the use of observation techniques. The sample consists of the companies listed in the PSI 20 at the 31st of December of 2019, and the analyzed period is from 2017 to 2019, participating in the investigation nine of those listed companies from various sectors of activity. Taking into account the analyzed companies of the PSI 20, it is concluded that they consider the existence of a relationship between social responsibility and corporate governance, translating this connection by corporate governance and social responsibility as part of the continuum
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