10 research outputs found

    2022 ESC Guidelines on cardiovascular assessment and management of patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery

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    Women leaders in Cardiology. Contemporary profile of the WHO European region

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    AIMS: Women’s participation is steadily growing in medical schools, but they are still not sufficiently represented in cardiology, particularly in cardiology leadership positions. We present the contemporary distribution of women leaders in cardiology departments in the World Health Organization European region. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between August and December 2020, we applied purposive sampling to collect data and analyse gender distribution of heads of cardiology department in university/third level hospitals in 23 countries: Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, North Macedonia, Morocco, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, and the UK. Age, cardiology subspecialty, and number of scientific publications were recorded for a subgroup of cardiology leaders for whom data were available. A total of 849 cardiology departments were analysed. Women leaders were only 30% (254/849) and were younger than their men counterpart (♀ 52.2 ± 7.7 years old vs. ♂ 58.1 ± 7.6 years old, P = 0.00001). Most women leaders were non-interventional experts (♀ 82% vs. ♂ 46%, P < 0.00001) and had significantly fewer scientific publications than men {♀ 16 [interquartile range (IQR) 2–41] publications vs. ♂ 44 (IQR 9–175) publications, P < 0.00001}. CONCLUSION: Across the World Health Organization European region, there is a significant gender disparity in cardiology leadership positions. Fostering a diverse and inclusive workplace is a priority to achieve the full potential and leverage the full talents of both women and men

    Prasugrel overcomes high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity in the acute phase of acute coronary syndrome and maintains its antiplatelet potency at 30-day follow-up

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    Background: The aim of this study was to assess antiplatelet effect of prasugrel in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) on clopidogrel, undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).Methods: A prospective, platelet reactivity-guided, parallel-group, open-label study including 71 patients pretreated with clopidogrel 600 mg and assigned either to prasugrel (30 mg loading dose, 10 mg maintenance dose; n = 46) or clopidogrel (150 mg maintenance dose for 6 days and thereafter 75 mg maintenance dose; n = 25) regimen, based on vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP)-assessed platelet reactivity index (PRI; &gt; 50% vs. ≤ 50%) measured next morning post-PCI.Results: Median PRI value after switch to prasugrel sharply declined at 24 h (70.0 [61.3–75.6] vs. 11.9 [6.8–25.7]%; p &lt; 0.000001) and slightly but significantly rose between 24 h and 30 days (27.9 [15.5–46.8]%; p &lt; 0.0006). In contrast, median PRI values in the clopidogrel group were similar at baseline and at 24 h (25.1 [13.7–40.2] vs. 22.0 [18.4–36.8]%; p = NS) and then modestly rose at 30 days (30.3 [20.4–45.7]%; p &lt; 0.03). The prevalence of HTPR decreased in the prasugrel group between baseline and 24 h measurements (100.0 vs. 4.3%; p &lt; 0.0001). Rates of patients with HTPR at 24 h and 30 days were similar in both groups, so were the tendencies in patterns of platelet inhibition evaluated with multiple electrode aggregometry as compared with the VASP assay.Conclusions: Our study indicates that prasugrel overcomes HTPR on clopidogrel in the acute phase of interventionally treated ACS and maintains its antiplatelet potency in 30-day follow-up. Potential clinical benefits of personalized antiplatelet prasugrel-based therapy warrant further investigation in clinical ACS trials.

    Phenotyping vs. genotyping for prediction of clopidogrel efficacy and safety: the PEGASUS-PCI study

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    Background: Prognostic values of genotyping and phenotyping for assessment of clopidogrel responsiveness have been shown in independent studies. Objectives: To compare different assays for prediction of events during long-term follow-up. Methods: In this prospective cohort study polymorphisms of CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*17 alleles, vasodilator- stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation (VASP) assay, multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA), cone and platelet analyser (CPA) and platelet function analyser (PFA- 100) were performed in 416 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The rates of events were recorded during a 12-month follow-up. Results: Platelet aggregation by MEA predicted stent thrombosis (2.4%) better (c-index = 0.90; P < 0.001; sensitivity = 90%; specificity = 83%) than the VASP assay, CPA or PFA-100 (c-index 0.05; sensitivity < 70%; specificity < 70% for all) or even the CYP2C19*2 polymorphism (c-index 0.05; sensitivity = 30%; specificity = 71%). Survival analysis indicated that patients classified as poor responders by MEA had a substantially higher risk of developing stent thrombosis or MACE than clopidogrel responders (12.5% vs. 0.3%, P < 0.001, and 18.5% vs. 11.3%, P = 0.022, respectively), whereas poor metabolizers (CYP2C19*1/*2 or *2/*2 carriers) were not at increased risks (stent thrombosis, 2.7% vs. 2.5%, P > 0.05; MACE, 13.5% vs. 12.1%, P = 0.556). The incidence of major bleedings (2.6%) was numerically higher in patients with an enhanced vs. poor response to clopidogrel assessed by MEA (4% vs. 0%) or in ultra-metabolizers vs. regular metabolizers (CYP2C19*17/*17 vs. CYP2C19*1/*1; 9.5% vs. 2%). The classification tree analysis demonstrated that acute coronary syndrome at hospitalization and diabetes mellitus were the best discriminators for clopidogrel responder status. Conclusions: Phenotyping of platelet response to clopidogrel was a better predictor of stent thrombosis than genotyping

    Low-molecular-weight heparins vs. unfractionated heparin in the setting of percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis

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    Summary. Background: The aim of the current study was to perform two separate meta-analyses of available studies comparing low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) vs. unfractionated heparin (UFH) in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated (i) with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) or (ii) with PCI after thrombolysis. Methods: All-cause mortality was the prespecified primary endpoint and major bleeding complications were recorded as the secondary endpoints. Relative risk (RR) with a 95%confidence interval (CI) and absolute risk reduction (ARR) were chosen as the effect measure. Results: Ten studies comprising 16 286 patients were included. The median followup was 2 months for the primary endpoint. Among LMWHs, enoxaparin was the compound most frequently used. In the pPCI group, LMWHs were associated with a reduction in mortality [RR (95% CI) = 0.51 (0.41–0.64), P < 0.001, ARR = 3%] and major bleeding [RR (95% CI) = 0.68 (0.49–0.94), P = 0.02, ARR = 2.0%] as compared with UFH. Conversely, no clear evidence of benefits with LWMHs was observed in the PCI group after thrombolysis. Metaregression showed that patients with a higher baseline risk had greater benefits from LMWHs (r = 0.72, P = 0.02). Conclusions: LMWHs were associated with greater efficacy and safety than UFH in STEMI patients treated with pPCI, with a significant relationship between risk profile and clinical benefits. Based on this meta-analysis, LMWHs may be considered as a preferred anticoagulant among STEMI patients undergoing pPCI

    Expression of miR-223 to predict outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation

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    Background: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an established treatment for aortic stenosis (AS) in patients at increased surgical risk. Up to 29% of patients annually experience major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) after TAVI. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are currently widely investigated as novel cardiovascular biomarkers. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of TAVI on the expressions of selected miRNAs associated with platelet function (miR-125a-5p, miR-125b and miR-223), and evaluate the predictive value of these miRNAs for MACCE in 65 patients undergoing TAVI. Methods: Venous blood samples for miRNA expression analysis were collected 1 day before TAVI and at hospital discharge. The expression of miR-223, miR-125a-5p, miR-125b was evaluated in platelet-depleted plasma. Results: The expression of miR-223 and miR-125b increased after TAVI, compared to the measurement before (p = 0.020, p = 0.003, respectively). Among 63 patients discharged from the hospital, 18 patients experienced MACCE (29%) during the median 15 months of observation. Baseline low miR-223 expression was a predictor of MACCE in univariate Cox regression analysis (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–7.01; p = 0.041). After inclusion of covariates, age, gender (male), New York Heart Association class and diabetes into the multivariate Cox regression model, miR-223 did not reach statistical significance (HR: 2.56, 95% CI: 0.79–8.33; p = 0.118). Conclusions: To conclude, miR-223 might improve risk stratification after TAVI. Further studies are required to confirm the clinical applicability of this promising biomarker

    Ticagrelor, but not clopidogrel and prasugrel, prevents ADP-induced vascular smooth muscle cell contraction: A placebo-controlled study in rats

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    Introduction: Off-target effects of novel antiplatelet agents due to their potential clinical benefits are currently an area of intensive investigation. We aimed to compare the effects of different P2Y12 antagonists on the reactivity of vascular smooth muscle cells. Materials and methods: Wistar rats (n=30) were pretreated with an investigated drug or placebo. Clopidogrel (50 mg/kg, n=7), prasugrel (10 mg/kg, n=7), ticagrelor (10 mg/kg, n=7) or placebo (n=9) were administered orally 12 and 2 hours before experiments. Constrictions of rat tail arteries induced with a stable analogue of adenosine diphosphate (2-MeS-ADP), phenylephrine and arginine vasopressin weremeasured as an increase in perfusion pressure. Effects of ticagrelor were assessed in the presence of ticagrelor (1 ÎĽM/L) added to the perfusion solution as this drug reversibly inhibits the P2Y12 receptor. Results: Pretreatmentwith clopidogrel and prasugrel did not inhibit 2-MeS-ADP-induced contraction while ticagrelor did. Experiments employing endothelium-deprived arteries provided similar results. Clopidogrel and prasugrel did not influence concentration-response curves in the presence of neither phenylephrine nor arginine vasopressin. The curves obtained for both vasopressors in the presence of ticagrelor and 2-MeS-ADP were shifted to the right with a significant reduction in the maximal response. Conclusions: Oral administration of ticagrelor, in contrast to clopidogrel and prasugrel, prevents adenosine diphosphate-induced contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells in a rat model. Both the clinical significance and detailed mechanism of our findings warrant further investigation

    Peer review versus editorial review and their role in innovative science

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    Diurnal variation in platelet inhibition by clopidogrel

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    Morning increase in the occurrence of myocardial infarction, stroke and sudden cardiac death is a well-recognized phenomenon, which is in line with a morning enhancement of platelet aggregation. We investigated whether platelet inhibition during clopidogrel and aspirin therapy varies during the day. Fifty-nine consecutive patients (45 men and 14 women) with first ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary interventions (pPCI) on dual antiplatelet therapy were prospectively enrolled into the study. Blood samples were collected 4 days after start of clopidogrel treatment at 6.00 a.m., 10.00 a.m., 2.00 p.m. and 7.00 p.m. Arachidonic acid and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation were assessed by impedance aggregometry. Platelet inhibition by clopidogrel was lowest in the midmorning: median ADP-induced platelet aggregation was 55%, 17% and 27% higher at 10.00 a.m. compared to 6.00 a.m., 2.00 p.m. and 7.00 p.m., respectively ( p<0.002). Nonresponsiveness to clopidogrel defined according to the device manufacturer was 2.4-fold more frequent in the midmorning than in the early morning. We observed a more pronounced midmorning increase in ADP-induced platelet aggregation in diabetic patients when compared to non-diabetics. In contrast, no diurnal variation in the antiplatelet effect of aspirin was observed. In conclusion, in patients presenting with STEMI undergoing pPCI, platelet inhibition by clopidogrel is less strong in the midmorning hours. This periodicity in platelet aggregation in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy should be taken into consideration when assessing platelet function in clinical studies
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