232 research outputs found

    Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the 12-item Arabic World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) as a screening tool for Syrian refugees

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    Background The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) is a generic measure of functional impairment and disability but to date no studies have reported its applicability in a population of Syrian refugees. Aims The aim of this study was to explore the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Arabic version of the WHODAS 2.0 among a population of Syrian refugees in a Jordanian refugee camp setting. The tool was used as part of a screening procedure for a randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of a low-intensity psychological intervention. Method A representative sample of Syrian refugees (n = 650) were screened to assess levels of functional impairment and psychological distress. The screening results were used to explore the internal consistency and dimensionality of the WHODAS 2.0. We assessed level of convergence with the validated Kessler 10-item Psychological Distress Scale (K10), which assesses psychological distress. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were conducted to explore the construct validity and factor structure of the WHODAS 2.0. Results The mean baseline WHODAS 2.0 score was 20.5 (s.d. = 7.6). The internal consistency was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha 0.74), with all 12-items appearing to be related to the same construct. The WHODAS 2.0 was positively correlated with the K10 (r = 0.57, P < 0.001). The results of the EFA identified a three-factor solution accounting for 51% of variation, corresponding with factors related to self-activities, external activities and self-care. CFA results indicated good fit of the three-factor solution. Conclusions The results indicated that the WHODAS 2.0 has a three-factor solution and is an acceptable screening tool for use among Syrian refugees

    Self-report screening instruments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors of traumatic experiences (protocol)

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    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of different PTSD self-report instruments

    Mental health across two years of the COVID-19 pandemic: a 5-wave longitudinal study in Germany

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    The COVID-19 pandemic has been negatively associated with mental health. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of mental health in the longer term of the pandemic. We aimed to investigate symptom levels and changes of depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and loneliness spanning two years of the pandemic; and to examine associated risk factors. This five-wave, longitudinal online study from May 2020 to April 2022 included 636 adults (Mage = 39.5 years, SD = 16.11; 84.1% female) from the German general population who completed the international COVID-19 Mental Health Survey. Symptoms of anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7; GAD-7), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9; PHQ-9), posttraumatic stress (PTSD Checklist for DSM-5; PCL-5), and loneliness (“Do you feel lonely?”) were assessed using mixed-effects models. Associations with anxiety and depressive symptoms were examined with having children, student status, financial worries, contamination fear, and loneliness. PHQ-9, GAD-7, PCL-5, and loneliness scores overall decreased throughout the two-year period of the pandemic but exhibited an increase during two national lockdowns. Controlled for significant associations with female gender and younger age, increased PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scores were associated with contamination fear, financial worries, and loneliness. No associations were found with having children and student status. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and loneliness decreased over time but varied along with the dynamics of the pandemic. Longitudinal monitoring of mental health in vulnerable subgroups is required, especially those of younger age, females, and the financially insecure

    Mental health across two years of the COVID-19 pandemic: a 5-wave longitudinal study in Germany

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    The COVID-19 pandemic has been negatively associated with mental health. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of mental health in the longer term of the pandemic. We aimed to investigate symptom levels and changes of depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and loneliness spanning two years of the pandemic; and to examine associated risk factors. This five-wave, longitudinal online study from May 2020 to April 2022 included 636 adults (Mage = 39.5 years, SD = 16.11; 84.1% female) from the German general population who completed the international COVID-19 Mental Health Survey. Symptoms of anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7; GAD-7), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9; PHQ-9), posttraumatic stress (PTSD Checklist for DSM-5; PCL-5), and loneliness (“Do you feel lonely?”) were assessed using mixed-effects models. Associations with anxiety and depressive symptoms were examined with having children, student status, financial worries, contamination fear, and loneliness. PHQ-9, GAD-7, PCL-5, and loneliness scores overall decreased throughout the two-year period of the pandemic but exhibited an increase during two national lockdowns. Controlled for significant associations with female gender and younger age, increased PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scores were associated with contamination fear, financial worries, and loneliness. No associations were found with having children and student status. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and loneliness decreased over time but varied along with the dynamics of the pandemic. Longitudinal monitoring of mental health in vulnerable subgroups is required, especially those of younger age, females, and the financially insecure

    The effect of Psychological First Aid training on knowledge and understanding about psychosocial support principles; a cluster-randomized controlled trial

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    Fiona O'May - ORCID 0000-0003-4417-2819 https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4417-2819Alastair Ager - ORCID 0000-0002-9474-3563 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9474-3563Replaced AM with VoR 13 Jan 2020.Psychological First Aid (PFA) is a world-wide implemented approach to helping people affected by an emergency, disaster or other adverse event. Controlled evaluations of PFA’s training effects are lacking. We evaluated the effectiveness of a one-day PFA training on the acquisition and retention of knowledge of appropriate psychosocial responses and skills in the acute aftermath of adversity in Peripheral Health Units (PHUs) in post-Ebola Sierra Leone. Secondary outcomes were professional quality of life, confidence in supporting a distressed person and professional attitude.PHUs in Sierra Leone (N=129) were cluster-randomized across PFA (206 participants) and control (202 participants) in March 2017. Knowledge and understanding of psychosocial support principles and skills were measured with a questionnaire and two patient scenarios to which participants described helpful responses. Professional attitude, confidence, and professional quality of life were assessed using self-report instruments. Assessments took place at baseline and at 3 and 6 months post-baseline. The PFA group had a stronger increase in PFA knowledge and understanding at the post-PFA training assessment (d=0.50; p<0.001) and at follow-up (d=0.43; p=0.001). In addition, the PFA group showed better responses to the scenarios at 6 months follow-up (d=0.38; p=0.0002) but not at the post-assessment (d=0.04; p=0.26). No overall significant differences were found for professional attitude, confidence and professional quality of life. In conclusion, PFA training improved acquisition and retention of knowledge and understanding of appropriate psychosocial responses and skills to individuals exposed to acute adversity. Our data support the use of PFA trainings to strengthen capacity for psychosocial support in contexts of disaster and humanitarian crisis. Future studies should examine the effects of PFA on psychosocial outcomes for people affected by crises. Trial registration: Nederlands Trial Register (NTR6846)The work described in this paper was funded by Elrha’s Research for Health in Humanitarian Crises (R2HC) Programme (Grant number 21163). The R2HC programme is funded by the UK Government (DFID), the Wellcome Trust, and the UK National Institute for Health Research (NHIR). Additional funding was obtained at the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) through the Advancing Partners & Communities project, implemented by JSI Research &Training Institute, Inc., in collaboration with FHI 360 under Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-12-00047. The opinions herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID.https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph1702048417pubpub

    Protocol for individual participant data meta-analysis of interventions for post-traumatic stress

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    Introduction: Several evidence-based treatments are effective for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet a substantial proportion of patients do not respond or dropout of treatment. We describe the protocol for a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis (IPD-MA) aimed at assessing the effectiveness and adverse effects of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy interventions for treating PTSD. Additionally, we seek to examine moderators and predictors of treatment outcomes. Method and analysis: This IPD-MA includes randomised controlled trials comparing psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy interventions for PTSD. PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, PTSDpubs and CENTRAL will be screened up till the 11th of January 2021. The target population is adults with above-threshold baseline PTSD symptoms on any standardised self-report measure. Trials will only be eligible if at least 70% of the study sample have been diagnosed with PTSD by means of a structured clinical interview. The primary outcomes of this IPD-MA are PTSD symptom severity, and response rate. Secondary outcomes include treatment dropout and adverse effects. Two independent reviewers will screen major bibliographic databases and past reviews. Authors will be contacted to contribute their participant-level datasets. Datasets will be merged into a master dataset. A one-stage IPD-MA will be conducted focusing on the effects of psychological and pharmacological interventions on PTSD symptom severity, response rate, treatment dropout and adverse effects. Subsequent analyses will focus on examining the effect of moderators and predictors of treatment outcomes. These will include sociodemographic, treatment-related, symptom-related, resilience, intervention, trauma and combat-related characteristics. By determining the individual factors that influence the effectiveness of specific PTSD treatments, we will gain insight into personalised treatment options for PTSD. Ethics and dissemination: Specific ethics approval for an IPD-MA is not required as this study entails secondary analysis of existing anonymised data. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed scientific journals and presentations

    Pharmacological prevention and early treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common mental disorder associated with significant distress and reduced functioning. Its occurrence after a severe traumatic event and association with characteristic neurobiological changes make PTSD a good candidate for pharmacological prevention and early treatment. The primary aim for this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess whether pharmacological interventions when compared to placebo, or other pharmacological/psychosocial interventions resulted in a clinically significant reduction or prevention of symptoms, improved functioning or quality of life, presence of disorder, or adverse effects. A systematic search was undertaken to identify RCTs, which used early pharmacotherapy (within three months of a traumatic event) to prevent and treat PTSD and acute stress disorder (ASD) in children and adults. Using Cochrane Collaboration methodology, RCTs were identified and rated for risk of bias. Available data was pooled to calculate risk ratios (RR) for PTSD prevalence and standardised mean differences (SMD) for PTSD severity. 19 RCTs met the inclusion criteria; 16 studies with adult participants and three with children. The methodological quality of most trials was low. Only hydrocortisone in adults was found to be superior to placebo (3 studies, n = 88, RR: 0.21 (CI 0.05 to 0.89)) although this was in populations with severe physical illness, raising concerns about generalisability. No significant effects were found for the other pharmacotherapies investigated (propranolol, oxytocin, gabapentin, fish oil (1470 mg DHA/147 mg EPA), fish oil (224 mg DHA/22.4 mg EPA), dexamethasone, escitalopram, imipramine and chloral hydrate). Hydrocortisone shows the most promise, of pharmacotherapies subjected to RCTs, as an emerging intervention in the prevention of PTSD within three months after trauma and should be a target for further investigation. The limited evidence for hydrocortisone and its adverse effects mean it cannot be recommended for routine use, but, it could be considered as a preventative intervention for people with severe physical illness or injury, shortly after a traumatic event, as long as there are no contraindications. More research is needed using larger, high quality RCTs to establish the most efficacious use of hydrocortisone in different populations and optimal dosing, dosing window and route. There is currently a lack of evidence to suggest that other pharmacological agents are likely to be effective

    The Suicidal Intrusions Attributes Scale (SINAS): a new tool measuring suicidal intrusions

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    IntroductionSuicidal intrusions are uncontrollable, intrusive mental images (e. g., visualizing a future suicidal act). They may also be called suicidal “flash-forwards.” Despite the importance of integrating the assessment of suicidal intrusions into a clinical routine assessment, quick self-report screening instruments are lacking. This study describes the development of a new instrument—Suicidal Intrusions Attributes Scale (SINAS)—to assess the severity and characteristics of suicidal intrusions and examines its psychometric properties.MethodThe sample included currently suicidal outpatients with elevated levels of depression recruited across mental health institutions in the Netherlands (N = 168). Instruments administered were 10-item SINAS, the Suicidal Ideation Attributes Scale (SIDAS), the Prospective Imagery Task (PIT), four-item Suicidal Cognitions Interview (SCI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II).ResultsAn exploratory factor analysis identified a one-factor structure. The resulting SINAS demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.91) and convergent validity, as expected.DiscussionOverall, this study demonstrated acceptable levels of reliability and validity of the measure in a depressed clinical population with suicidal ideation. The SINAS may be a useful screening tool for suicidal intrusions in both research and clinical settings

    Dismantling and personalising task-sharing psychosocial interventions for common mental disorders: a study protocol for an individual participant data component network meta-analysis.

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    INTRODUCTION Common mental disorders, including depression, anxiety and related somatic health symptoms, are leading causes of disability worldwide. Especially in low-resource settings, psychosocial interventions delivered by non-specialist providers through task-sharing modalities proved to be valid options to expand access to mental healthcare. However, such interventions are usually eclectic multicomponent interventions consisting of different combinations of evidence-based therapeutic strategies. Which of these various components (or combinations thereof) are more efficacious (and for whom) to reduce common mental disorder symptomatology is yet to be substantiated by evidence. METHODS AND ANALYSIS Comprehensive search was performed in electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials-CENTRAL from database inception to 15 March 2023 to systematically identify all randomised controlled trials that compared any single component or multicomponent psychosocial intervention delivered through the task-sharing modality against any active or inactive control condition in the treatment of adults suffering from common mental disorders. From these trials, individual participant data (IPD) of all measured outcomes and covariates will be collected. We will dismantle psychosocial interventions creating a taxonomy of components and then apply the IPD component network meta-analysis (IPD-cNMA) methodology to assess the efficacy of individual components (or combinations thereof) according to participant-level prognostic factors and effect modifiers. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION Ethics approval is not applicable for this study since no original data will be collected. Results from this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant conferences

    Treatment of Intrusive Suicidal Imagery Using Eye Movements

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    Suicide and suicidal behavior are major public health concerns, and affect 3–9% of the population worldwide. Despite increased efforts for national suicide prevention strategies, there are still few effective interventions available for reducing suicide risk. In this article, we describe various theoretical approaches for suicide ideation and behavior, and propose to examine the possible effectiveness of a new and innovative preventive strategy. A model of suicidal intrusion (mental imagery related to suicide, also referred to as suicidal flash-forwards) is presented describing one of the assumed mechanisms in the etiology of suicide and the mechanism of therapeutic change. We provide a brief rationale for an Eye Movement Dual Task (EMDT) treatment for suicidal intrusions, describing techniques that can be used to target these suicidal mental images and thoughts to reduce overall behavior. Based on the available empirical evidence for the mechanisms of suicidal intrusions, this approach appears to be a promising new treatment to prevent suicidal behavior as it potentially targets one of the linking pins between suicidal ideation and suicidal actions
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