173 research outputs found

    Effect of voluntary running on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in cholinergic lesioned mice

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Cholinergic neuronal dysfunction of the basal forebrain is observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease and dementia, and has been linked to decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus, a region involved in learning and memory. Running is a robust inducer of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. This study aims to address the effect of running on hippocampal neurogenesis in lesioned mice, where septohippocampal cholinergic neurones have been selectively eliminated in the medial septum and diagonal band of Broca of the basal forebrain by infusion of mu-p75-saporin immunotoxin.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Running increased the number of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in cholinergic denervated mice compared to non-lesioned mice 24 hours after injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Although similar levels of surviving cells were present in cholinergic depleted animals and their respective controls four weeks after injection of BrdU, the majority of progenitors that proliferate in response to the initial period of running were not able to survive beyond one month without cholinergic input. Despite this, the running-induced increase in the number of surviving neurones was not affected by cholinergic depletion.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The lesion paradigm used here models aspects of the cholinergic deficits associated with Alzheimer's Disease and aging. We showed that running still increased the number of newborn cells in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus in this model of neurodegenerative disease.</p

    RPTPα controls epithelial adherens junctions, linking E-cadherin engagement to c-Src-mediated phosphorylation of cortactin

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    Epithelial junctions are fundamental determinants of tissue organization, subject to regulation by tyrosine phosphorylation. Homophilic binding of E-cadherin activates tyrosine kinases, such as Src, that control junctional integrity. Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) also contribute to cadherin-based adhesion and signaling, but little is known about their specific identity or functions at epithelial junctions. Here, we report that the receptor PTP RPTPα (human gene name PTPRA) is recruited to epithelial adherens junctions at the time of cell-cell contact, where it is in molecular proximity to E-cadherin. RPTPα is required for appropriate cadherin-dependent adhesion and for cyst architecture in three-dimensional culture. Loss of RPTPa impairs adherens junction integrity, as manifested by defective E-cadherin accumulation and peri-junctional F-actin density. These effects correlate with a role for RPTPa in cellular (c)-Src activation at sites of E-cadherin engagement. Mechanistically, RPTPα is required for appropriate tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin, a major Src substrate and a cytoskeletal actin organizer. Expression of a phosphomimetic cortactin mutant in RPTPα-depleted cells partially rescues F-actin and E-cadherin accumulation at intercellular contacts. These findings indicate that RPTPa controls cadherinmediated signaling by linking homophilic E-cadherin engagement to cortactin tyrosine phosphorylation through c-Src

    Measurement of t(t)over-bar normalised multi-differential cross sections in pp collisions at root s=13 TeV, and simultaneous determination of the strong coupling strength, top quark pole mass, and parton distribution functions

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    Peer reviewe

    An embedding technique to determine ττ backgrounds in proton-proton collision data