102 research outputs found

    The Changing Trade and Revealed Comparative Advantages of Asian and Latin American Manufacture Exports

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    Changes in comparative advantage should reflect changes in factor endowment, but increasingly, changes in trade policies also affect a region's trade performance. Based on the arguments in Balassa's stages of comparative advantage thesis, this paper looks at the performance of manufacture exports in a number of Asian and Latin American economies over the period 1981-1997 and examines the revealed comparative advantage indices between economies in East Asia, Southeast Asia and Latin America. Although the RCA measurement may not distinguish between the factor endowment effects from the trade policy effect, we argue that RCA measures provide indication on the movement in a region's comparative advantage. The evidence strongly suggests that despite the strong export performance experienced by East Asian economies, they are losing their comparative advantage to the lower-tier economies in Southeast Asia and Latin America.International Trade; Revealed Comparative Advantage; Manufacture Exports

    The Changing Trade and Revealed Comparative Advantages of Asian and Latin American Manufacture Exports

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    A EMENDA DA REELEI√á√ÉO E A LEI DE RESPONSABILIDADE FISCAL: IMPACTOS SOBRE CICLOS POL√ćTICOS E PERFORMANCE FISCAL DOS ESTADOS (1986-2002)

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    This paper analyses the effects of two recent institutional changes, the "Reelection Amendment" and the Law of Fiscal Responsibility, on political budget cycles and fiscal performance of Brazilian federal states. The empirical evidence shows that (1) contrarily to previous results, the Reelection increased public spending and debt level of states in electoral years; (2) the Law of Fiscal Responsibility significantly decreased the functionalism spending and capital revenue, and, on the other hand, increased the tax revenue of states.

    Conflitos e convergências na ALCA numa perspectiva de vantagens comparativas reveladas de países das Américas

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    In this paper the industry sectors' revealed comparative advantages for 12 Americas' countries were calculated from 1981 to 1999. The countries' revealed comparative advantage patterns are then used to establish the similarity degree among these 12 countries. This similarity degree gives us both an indication of the economic costs in a commercial integration and also some insights about incentives that sub-groups of countries have to act as a group in a negotiation for commercial integration. The results show that these 12 countries can be grouped in three subsets of countries distinct to each other subset, that the economic costs of commercial integration among these 12 countries (ALCA) is relatively high, and that there is a sub-group of South American countries that are similar among them, which therefore have a natural incentive to negotiate as a group in a commercial integration process like ALCA.Neste artigo calculamos o padr√£o de vantagens comparativas reveladas de 12 pa√≠ses das Am√©ricas no per√≠odo de 1981 a 1999. A partir desse padr√£o de vantagens comparativas reveladas averiguamos a similaridade existente entre esses pa√≠ses. O grau de similaridade entre pa√≠ses permite inferir sobre o custo econ√īmico de ajustamentos setoriais resultantes de uma integra√ß√£o comercial entre eles, assim como possibilita fazer conjeturas sobre os incentivos que subgrupos de pa√≠ses t√™m para atuar conjunta e sistematicamente numa negocia√ß√£o comercial. Os resultados alcan√ßados mostram que os pa√≠ses das Am√©ricas podem ser agrupados em tr√™s grupos distintos entre si, que o custo econ√īmico de integra√ß√£o comercial entre o conjunto desses pa√≠ses (ALCA) √© relativamente elevado e que entre os pa√≠ses sul-americanos h√° um grupo de pa√≠ses similares entre si, ou bloco natural. Esse grupo de pa√≠ses, portanto, possui um incentivo natural, pela conjuga√ß√£o dos interesses comerciais, para atuar conjuntamente em negocia√ß√Ķes comerciais, como a de integra√ß√£o regional de com√©rcio da ALCA

    Implica√ß√Ķes da unifica√ß√£o europeia sobre o sistema bancario na Alemanha

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    Using the modern financial intermediation theory the structure and institutional characteristics of the German banking system are analysed to evaluate some of the consequences of the European unification and integration offinancial markets to the German banking system. With this purpose we describe the distinctive institutional characteristics and structure of the banking system. More over we analyse how they may be changed and what consequences they can engender under the financial intermediation theory

    A emenda da reeleição e a Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal: impactos sobre ciclos políticos e performance fiscal dos Estados (1986-2002)

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    O presente trabalho estuda o comportamento fiscal dos Estados brasileiros no per√≠odo 1986-2002, analisando, em particular, o impacto de duas mudan√ßas institucionais recentes, a Emenda da Reelei√ß√£o e a Lei de Res-ponsabilidade Fiscal, sobre os ciclos pol√≠ticos or√ßament√°rios e sobre a performance fiscal dos Estados. Os resultados obtidos apontam que a Emenda da Reelei√ß√£o implicou a intensifica√ß√£o dos ciclos pol√≠ticos, estimulando manipula√ß√Ķes oportunistas durante o per√≠odo eleitoral; a Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal, por sua vez, constituiu um instrumento efetivo para o controle do endividamento e para a redu√ß√£o das despesas de custeio dos Estados. Constatou-se tamb√©m que a amplitude dos ciclos pol√≠ticos tem diminu√≠do ao longo do tempo, fato que poderia ser atribu√≠do ao aprendizado do eleitorado e √† experi√™ncia adquirida com elei√ß√Ķes sucessivas, que contribuem para elevar o n√≠vel de controle pol√≠tico, reduzindo, assim, a intensidade dos ciclos.This paper studies the fiscal behavior of Brazilian Federal States in the period 1986-2002, focusing, in particular, on the effects of two recent institutional changes, the "Reelection Amendment" and the "Fiscal Responsibility Law", on political budget cycles and on fiscal performance. The results provide evidence that the Reelection Amendment caused intensification in political cycles, stimulating opportunistic manipulations during the electoral period; and the Fiscal Responsibility Law constituted an effective instrument to control indebtedness and to reduce functionalism spending in States. The evidence also shows that the magnitude of the political cycles has been decreasing in time, a fact that could be attributed to the electorates learning and experience in successive elections, which contribute to increase the level of political control, so reducing the intensity of the cycles

    Urban Climate Under Change [UC]2¬†‚Äď A National Research Programme for Developing a Building-Resolving Atmospheric Model for Entire City Regions

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    Large cities and urban regions are confronted with rising pressure by environmental pollution, impacts of climate change, as well as natural and health hazards. They are characterised by heterogeneous mosaics of urban structures, causing modifications of atmospheric processes on different temporal and spatial scales. Planning authorities need reliable, locally relevant information on urban atmospheric processes, providing fine spatial resolutions in city quarters or street canyons, as well as projections of future climates, specifically downscaled to individual cities. Therefore, building-resolving urban climate models for entire city regions are required as tool for urban development and planning, air quality control, as well as for design of actions for climate change mitigation and adaptation. To date, building-resolving atmospheric models covering entire large cities are mostly missing. The German research programme ‚ÄúUrban Climate Under Change‚ÄĚ ([UC]2) aims at developing a new urban climate model, to acquire three-dimensional observational data for model testing and validation, and to test its practicability and usability in collaboration with relevant stakeholders to provide a scientifically sound and practicable instrument to address the above mentioned challenges. This article provides an outline of the collaborative activities of the [UC]2 research programme
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