141 research outputs found

    Neutron-induced Fission Cross Section of240,242Pu

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    A sensitivity analysis for the new generation of fast reactors [Salvatores (2008)] has shown the importance of improved cross section data for several actinides. Among them, the240,242Pu(n,f) cross sections require an accuracy improvement to 1-3% and 3-5%, respectively, from the current level of 6% and 20%. At the Van de Graaff facility of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (JRC-IRMM) the fission cross section of the two isotopes was measured relative to two secondary standard reactions,237Np(n,f) and238U(n,f), using a twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber. The secondary standard reactions were benchmarked through measurements against the primary standard reaction235U(n,f) in the same geometry. Sample masses were determined by means of low-geometry alpha counting or/and a 2p Frisch-grid ionization chamber, with an uncertainty lower than 2%. The neutron flux and the impact of scattering from material between source and target was examined, the largest effect having been found in cross section ratio measurements between a fissile and a fertile isotope. Our240,242Pu(n,f) cross sections are in agreement with previous experimental results and slightly lower than present evaluations. In case of the242Pu(n,f) reaction no evidence for a resonance at En=1.1 MeV was found.Postprint (published version

    Evaluation of EC Measurement Comparison on Simulated Airborne Particulates - 137Cs in Air Filters

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    This report describes the full life cycle of the measurement comparison of 137Cs in air filters among 43 European laboratories monitoring radioactivity in the environment. Gravimetrically pipetting droplets of a gravimetrically diluted standardised 137Cs solution onto real air filters, SI-traceable reference values were established for intercomparison filters carrying a large range of activity close to the routine measurement conditions of the corresponding laboratory. The sample preparation and measurement processes applied in the participating laboratories are described and the results of the intercomparison are presented and discussed in detail. The results point at some problems of radioactivity measurement in air filters which need to be improved by several laboratories. Overall, with 41 out of 48 reported measurement results lying within +/- 33 % of the IRMM reference value, this comparison renders a rather fair result.JRC.D.4-Isotope measurement

    Towards high accurate neutron-induced fission cross sections of 240,242Pu: Spontaneous fission half-lives

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    Fast spectrum neutron-induced fission cross sections of transuranic isotopes are being of special demand in order to provide accurate data for the new GEN-IV nuclear power plants. To minimize the uncertainties on these measurements accurate data on spontaneous fission half-lives and detector efficiencies are a key point. High -active actinides need special attention since the misinterpretation of detector signals can lead to low efficiency values or underestimation in fission fragment detection. In that context, 240,242Pu isotopes have been studied by means of a Twin Frisch-Grid Ionization Chamber (TFGIC) for measurements of their neutron-induced fission cross section. Gases with different drift velocities have been used, namely P10 and CH4. The detector efficiencies for both samples have been determined and improved spontaneous fission half-life values were obtained.JRC.D.4-Standards for Nuclear Safety, Security and Safeguard

    Development of neutron resonance densitometry at the GELINA TOF facility

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    Neutrons can be used as a tool to study properties of materials and objects. An evolving activity in this field concerns the existence of resonances in neutron induced reaction cross sections. These resonance structures are the basis of two analytical methods which have been developed at the EC-JRC-IRMM: Neutron Resonance Capture Analysis (NRCA) and Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA). They have been applied to determine the elemental composition of archaeological objects and to characterize nuclear reference materials. A combination of NRTA and NRCA together with Prompt Gamma Neutron Analysis, referred to as Neutron Resonance Densitometry (NRD), is being studied as a non-destructive method to characterize particle-like debris of melted fuel that is formed in severe nuclear accidents such as the one which occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants. This study is part of a collaboration between JAEA and EC-JRC-IRMM. In this contribution the basic principles of NRTA and NRCA are explained based on the experience in the use of these methods at the time-of-flight facility GELINA of the EC-JRC-IRMM. Specific problems related to the analysis of samples resulting from melted fuel are discussed. The programme to study and solve these problems is described and results of a first measurement campaign at GELINA are given.JRC.D.4-Standards for Nuclear Safety, Security and Safeguard

    Interlaboratory comparison on 137Cs activity concentration in fume dust

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    Proceeding of the 9th International Topical Meeting on Industrial Radiation and Radioisotope Measurement Applications, 6-7 July 2014, Valencia, Spain.; International audience; A comparison was conducted, between 11 European National Metrology Institutes and EC-JRC, on measurement of Cs-137 activity concentration in fume dust. As test material an activity standard produced from real contaminated fume dust was used. The standard material consisted of 13 cylindrical samples of compressed fume dust. The material contained Cs-137 and Co-60 of reference activity concentrations of (9.72 +/- 0.10) Bq/g and (0.450 +/- 0.018) Bq/g, respectively, for the reference date of 1 June 2013, determined using the comparison results. The organization and results of the intercomparison, as well as the process of obtaining reliable reference values are presented

    Particle size inhomogeneity effect on neutron resonance densitometry

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    Neutron Resonance Densitometry (NRD) represents a possible option to determine the heavy metal content in melted nuclear fuel. This method is based on the well-established methodology of neutron time-of-flight (TOF) transmission and capture measurements. In particular, NRD can measure both the isotopic and the elemental composition. It is a non-destructive method and is applicable for highly radioactive material. The details of this method are explained in another contribution to this bulletin. The accuracy of NRD depends among other factors on sample characteristics. Inhomogeneities such as density variations in powder samples can introduce a significant bias in the determination of the composition. In this contribution, the impact of the particle size distribution of such powder samples on results obtained with NRD is investigated. Various analytical models, describing the neutron transport through powder, are compared. Stochastic numerical simulations are used to select a specific model and to estimate the introduced model uncertainty. The results from these simulations will be verified by dedicated measurements at the TOF-facility GELINA of the EC-JRC-IRMM.JRC.D.4-Standards for Nuclear Safety, Security and Safeguard

    EUFRAT, Open Access to the nuclear research infrastructure at JRC Geel

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    Open access activities to the nuclear research facilities operated at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Geel are reported. These activities are carried out by the unit Standards for Nuclear Safety, Security and Safeguards of the Directorate for Nuclear Safety and Security as part of its work programme. The open access activities at JRC Geel run since 2014 as an institutional programme under the EURATOM work programme. In 2017 the JRC decided to start a JRC-wide open access scheme to its research infrastructure co-ordinated by the Directorate for Strategy, Work Programme and Resources. The transition to a JRC-wide open access scheme is discussed and the results of the first two calls for proposals during 2017 and 2018 are summarised.JRC.G.2-Standards for Nuclear Safety, Security and Safeguard

    Measurement of the 240Pu(n,f) cross-section at the CERN n-TOF facility : First results from experimental area II (EAR-2)

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    The accurate knowledge of the neutron-induced fission cross-sections of actinides and other isotopes involved in the nuclear fuel cycle is essential for the design of advanced nuclear systems, such as Generation-IV nuclear reactors. Such experimental data can also provide the necessary feedback for the adjustment of nuclear model parameters used in the evaluation process, resulting in the further development of nuclear fission models. In the present work, the 240Pu(n,f) cross-section was measured at CERN's n-TOF facility relative to the well-known 235U(n,f) cross section, over a wide range of neutron energies, from meV to almost MeV, using the time-of-flight technique and a set-up based on Micromegas detectors. This measurement was the first experiment to be performed at n-TOF's new experimental area (EAR-2), which offers a significantly higher neutron flux compared to the already existing experimental area (EAR-1). Preliminary results as well as the experimental procedure, including a description of the facility and the data handling and analysis, are presented

    Fission cross section measurements for 240Pu, 242Pu

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    This report comprises the deliverable 1.5 of the ANDES project (EURATOM contract FP7-249671) of Task 3 "High accuracy measurements for fission" of Work Package 1 entitled "Measurements for advanced reactor systems". This deliverables provide evidence of a successful completion of the objectives of Task 3.JRC.D.4-Standards for Nuclear Safety, Security and Safeguard
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