1,026 research outputs found

    An estimate of the uptake of atmospheric methyl bromide by agricultural soils

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    Published estimates of removal of atmospheric methyl bromide (CH3Br) by agricultural soils are 2.7 Gg yr−1 (Gg = 109 g) [Shorter et al., 1995] and 65.8 Gg yr−1 [Serça et al., 1998]. The Serça et al. estimate, if correct, would suggest that the current value for total removal of atmospheric CH3Br by all sinks of 206 Gg yr−1 (based on Shorter et al., 1995) would be 30% too low. We have calculated a new rate of global agricultural soil uptake of atmospheric CH3Br from a larger sampling of cultivated soils collected from 40 sites located in the United States, Costa Rica, and Germany. First order reaction rates were measured during static laboratory incubations. These data were combined with uptake measurements we reported earlier based on field and laboratory experiments [Shorter et al. 1995]. Tropical (10.2°–10.4°N) and northern (45°–61°N) soils averaged lower reaction rate constants than temperate soils probably due to differing physical and chemical characteristics as well as microbial populations. Our revised global estimate for the uptake of ambient CH3Br by cultivated soils is 7.47±0.63 Gg yr−1, almost three times the value that we reported in 1995

    KINETIC AND KINEMATIC CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH ALTERING HEEL HEIGHT DURING CRICKET MEDIUM-FAST BOWLING

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    INTRODUCTION: During a cricket bowling delivery, the major impact with the pitch occurs at front foot impact (FFI), generating forces approximately 5.7 times body weight (BW) in the vertical plane and 3.5 BW in the horizontal plane. (Hurrion et al. 2000). Although cricket footwear has been acknowledged by researchers as worthy of investigation, to date there is no research published to inform of the potential for injury prevention. Bartold (2005) found when investigating midsole height in football footwear that a graduated rise of 1cm altered lower limb muscle activity and reduced peak pressures under the foot during treadmill running. Associated altered kinematics reported by Bartold (2005) is in accordance with reports by Eslami et al. (2005) who found a 0.4cm posterior wedge can be utilised to alter the angular variability of the subtalar joint and its proximal joints and segments in their respective planes of movement during single limb stance

    ANKLE JOINT LOADING DURING THE DELIVERY STRIDE IN CRICKET MEDIUM- FAST BOWLING

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    To date, biomechanical research investigating the aetiology of cricket injuries has studied the kinetics and kinematics of associated movements in isolation. The aim of this study was to apply inverse dynamics to investigate ankle joint forces during the delivery stride using four Basler 200 Hz cameras synchronised to two Kistler 9581B force plates with Peak Motus 9.2. Although peak ankle joint moment in the sagittal plane was greater for the front foot (mean: 3.21 ± 1.71 Nm⋅Kg-1) in relation to the back foot (mean: 1.70 ± 0.87 Nm⋅Kg-1); average rate of joint loading was 246% greater in the frontal plane for the back foot (mean: 1.11 ± 0.82 Nm⋅Kg-1⋅s-1) compared to the front foot (mean: 0.45 ± 0.20 Nm⋅Kg-1⋅s-1). Findings would suggest that whilst the front foot is prone to acute injuries, the back foot may be more susceptible to overuse injuries such as lateral ankle instability

    KINETIC AND KINEMATIC CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH ALTERING HEEL HEIGHT DURING CRICKET MEDIUM-FAST BOWLING

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    INTRODUCTION: During a cricket bowling delivery, the major impact with the pitch occurs at front foot impact (FFI), generating forces approximately 5.7 times body weight (BW) in the vertical plane and 3.5 BW in the horizontal plane. (Hurrion et al. 2000). Although cricket footwear has been acknowledged by researchers as worthy of investigation, to date there is no research published to inform of the potential for injury prevention. Bartold (2005) found when investigating midsole height in football footwear that a graduated rise of 1cm altered lower limb muscle activity and reduced peak pressures under the foot during treadmill running. Associated altered kinematics reported by Bartold (2005) is in accordance with reports by Eslami et al. (2005) who found a 0.4cm posterior wedge can be utilised to alter the angular variability of the subtalar joint and its proximal joints and segments in their respective planes of movement during single limb stance. This study looks at the effect of within shoe heel raises upon ground front foot impact forces. It is believed that by raising the rearfoot in relation to the forefoot, the windlass mechanism will be elicited, increasing medial longitudinal arch height to further improve the shock attenuation properties of the foot, and thus lower the stresses higher up in the kinetic chain

    A PRELIMINARY ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC INVESTIGATION INTO SHOULDER MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN CRICKET SEAM BOWLING

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    2 The aim of this investigation was to describe and compare surface electromyographic activity of shoulder musculature during cricket seam bowling between two elite bowlers with (bowler A) and without (bowler B) shoulder pathology. Activity of seven muscles were recorded at 500 Hz with a digital camera sampling at 210 Hz used to define phases within the movement. Whilst both the duration of the movement and ball velocity were similar between bowlers (bowler A: duration = 0.89 ± 0.04 s, ball velocity = 27.08 ± 1.21 m.s-1; bowler B: duration = 0.72 ± 0.02 s, ball velocity = 26.59 ± 1.49 m.s-1), variations in muscle activity particularly for biceps brachii and infraspinatus were established. Further research utilising larger sample sizes is required to establish if such variations occur as a consequence of shoulder pathology or if these are due to other contributing factors

    Environmental baseline characterisation and monitoring borehole GGA06r, UK Geoenergy Observatory, Glasgow

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    This report and accompanying data release describe the ‘as-built’ borehole GGA06r at the UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow, as well as summarising hydrogeological testing and an initial geological interpretation. Environmental baseline characterisation and monitoring borehole GGA06r at the UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow is screened across a coarse sand and gravel in the superficial deposits. The borehole has proved to be low yielding on initial hydrogeological testing and has a hydrogeological data logger installed

    Mine water characterisation and monitoring borehole GGA05, UK Geoenergy Observatory, Glasgow

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    This report and accompanying data release describe the ‘as-built’ borehole GGA05 at the UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow, as well as summarising hydrogeological testing and an initial geological interpretation. Mine water borehole GGA05 at the UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow is screened across the Glasgow Main mine working void and overlying sandstone roof. The mine working is a water-filled void and initial hydrogeological indications from the test pumping are of a very high yielding borehole. Borehole GGA05 has ERT and DTS cables installed between the borehole casing and the rock wall and has a hydrogeological data logger installed within the borehole

    Mine water characterisation and monitoring borehole GGA08, UK Geoenergy Observatory, Glasgow

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    This report and accompanying data release describe the ‘as-built’ borehole GGA08 at the UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow. They also describe initial hydrogeological testing completed after borehole construction and provide an initial geological interpretation. Mine water characterisation and monitoring borehole GGA08 at the UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow is screened across the Glasgow Main mine working and overlying sandstone roof. The mine working is interpreted as a roadway with a void, mine waste and wood encountered. Initial hydrogeological indications from the test pumping suggest borehole GGA08 is very high yielding. Borehole GGA08 has ERT and DTS cables installed between the borehole casing and the surrounding rock, and a hydrogeological data logger installed within the borehole

    Mine water characterisation and monitoring borehole GGA04, UK Geoenergy Observatory, Glasgow

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    This report and accompanying data release describe the ‘as-built’ borehole GGA04 at the UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow, as well as summarising hydrogeological testing and an initial geological interpretation. Mine water borehole GGA04 at the UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow is screened across the Glasgow Upper coal and overlying sandstone roof. The borehole was drilled within an area of stoop (pillar) and room mine workings and is interpreted to have hit a coal pillar or partially collapsed pillar and a possibly fractured sandstone roof. It can be used for characterising and monitoring a fractured rock mass within a mine working area. Initial hydrogeological indications from the test pumping indicate that borehole GGA04 is high yielding. Borehole GGA04 has ERT and DTS cables installed between the borehole casing and the rock wall and has a hydrogeological data logger installed within the borehole

    Mine water characterisation and monitoring borehole GGA01, UK Geoenergy Observatory, Glasgow.

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    This report and accompanying data release describe the ‘as-built’ borehole GGA01 at the UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow, as well as summarising hydrogeological testing and an initial geological interpretation. Mine water borehole GGA01 at the UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow is screened across the Glasgow Upper mine working and overlying sandstone roof. The mine working is interpreted to be filled with a loosely packed mine waste. Hydrogeological evidence from test pumping indicates that the borehole is very high yielding. Borehole GGA01 has ERT and DTS cables installed between the borehole casing and the rock wall and has a hydrogeological data logger installed within the borehole
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