424 research outputs found

    Associations of TNFR1 with kidney function outcomes by age, gender, and baseline kidney function status: Data from the Heart and Soul Study.

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    Tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (TNFR1) is associated with kidney disease and mortality risk in various populations [1], [2]. We evaluated associations of TNFR1 with mortality and mediators of this relationship in doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2017.05.021. Whether or not these associations are influenced by age, gender, or baseline kidney function are not known. We evaluated associations of TNFR1 levels with measures of kidney function stratifying by these variables. Our outcomes included estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) >30 mg/g, and rapid kidney function loss, defined as a change in eGFR of greater than 3% per year

    Use of cystatin C to inform metformin eligibility among adult veterans with diabetes.

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    AimsRecommendations for metformin use are dependent on eGFR category: eGFR >45 ml/min/1.73 m2 - "first-line agent"; eGFR 30-44 - "use with caution"; eGFR<30 - "do not use". Misclassification of metformin eligibility by creatinine-based MDRD GFR estimates (eGFRcr) may contribute to its misuse. We investigated the impact of cystatin c estimates of GFR (eGFRcys) on metformin eligibility.MethodsIn a consecutive cohort of 550 Veterans with diabetes, metformin use and eligibility were assessed by eGFR category, using eGFRcr and eGFRcys. Discrepancy in eligibility was defined as cases where eGFRcr and eGFRcys categories (<30, 30-44, 45-60, and >60 ml/min/1.73 m2) differed with an absolute difference in eGFR of >5 ml/min/1.73 m2. We modeled predictors of metformin use and eGFR category discrepancy with multivariable relative risk regression and multinomial logistic regression.ResultsSubjects were 95% male, median age 68, and racially diverse (45% White, 22% Black, 11% Asian, 22% unknown). Metformin use decreased with severity of eGFRcr category, from 63% in eGFRcr >60 to 3% in eGFRcr <30. eGFRcys reclassified 20% of Veterans into different eGFR categories. Factors associated with a more severe eGFRcys category compared to eGFRcr were older age (aOR = 2.21 per decade, 1.44-1.82), higher BMI (aOR = 1.04 per kg/m2, 1.01-1.08) and albuminuria >30 mg/g (aOR = 1.81, 1.20-2.73).ConclusionsMetformin use is low among Veterans with CKD. eGFRcys may serve as a confirmatory estimate of kidney function to allow safe use of metformin among patients with CKD, particularly among older individuals and those with albuminuria

    Early Trends in Cystatin C and Outcomes in Patients with Cirrhosis and Acute Kidney Injury

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    Background. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and severe complication in patients with cirrhosis. Progression of AKI to a higher stage associates with increased mortality. Intervening early in AKI when renal dysfunction is worsening may improve outcomes. However, serum creatinine correlates poorly with glomerular filtration in patients with cirrhosis and fluctuations may mask progression early in the course of AKI. Cystatin C, a low-molecular-weight cysteine proteinase inhibitor, is a potentially more accurate marker of glomerular filtration. Methods. We conducted a prospective multicenter study in patients with cirrhosis comparing changes in cystatin and creatinine immediately following onset of AKI as predictors of a composite endpoint of dialysis or mortality. Results. Of 106 patients, 37 (35%) met the endpoint. Cystatin demonstrated less variability between samples than creatinine. Patients were stratified into four groups reflecting changes in creatinine and cystatin: both unchanged or decreased 38 (36%) (Scr−/CysC−); only cystatin increased 25 (24%) (Scr−/CysC+); only creatinine increased 15 (14%) (Scr+/CysC−); and both increased 28 (26%) (Scr+/CysC+). With Scr−/CysC− as the reference, in both instances where cystatin rose, Scr−/CysC+ and Scr+/CysC+, the primary outcome was significantly more frequent in multivariate analysis, and , respectively. However, when only creatinine rose, outcomes were similar to the reference group. Conclusions. Changes in cystatin levels early in AKI are more closely associated with eventual dialysis or mortality than creatinine and may allow more rapid identification of patients at risk for adverse outcomes

    Long-term clinical consequences of acute kidney injury in the HIV-infected

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    To evaluate the long-term consequences of acute kidney injury (AKI) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons, we studied 17,325 patients in a national HIV registry during their first hospitalization. We determined the association of AKI with risk for heart failure, cardiovascular events, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and mortality beginning 90 days after discharge. Based on AKI Network criteria, 2453 had stage 1; 273 had stage 2 or 3; and 334 had dialysis-requiring AKI. Over a mean follow-up period of 5.7 years, 333 had heart failure, 673 had cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), 348 developed ESRD, and 8405 deaths occurred. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, AKI stage 1 was associated with death and ESRD, but not heart failure or other CVD. Dialysis-requiring AKI had much stronger and significant associations with increased risk for long-term ESRD, and death in addition to heart failure and cardiovascular events. When AKI was reclassified to account for recovery, stage 1 with recovery was still associated with death, but not ESRD. Thus, in this national sample of HIV-infected persons, we found the clinical repercussions of AKI appear to extend beyond the hospital setting contributing to excess cardiovascular risks, ESRD, and mortality. Additionally, AKI affected almost one of six patients with HIV who survived at least 90 days following discharge
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