3,904 research outputs found

    Towards Coherent Neutrino Detection Using Low-Background Micropattern Gas Detectors

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    The detection of low energy neutrinos (<< few tens of MeV) via coherent nuclear scattering remains a holy grail of sorts in neutrino physics. This uncontroversial mode of interaction is expected to profit from a sizeable increase in cross section proportional to neutron number squared in the target nucleus, an advantageous feature in view of the small probability of interaction via all other channels in this energy region. A coherent neutrino detector would open the door to many new applications, ranging from the study of fundamental neutrino properties to true "neutrino technology". Unfortunately, present-day radiation detectors of sufficiently large mass (>> 1 kg) are not sensitive to sub-keV nuclear recoils like those expected from this channel. The advent of Micropattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs), new technologies originally intended for use in High Energy Physics, may soon put an end to this impasse. We present first tests of MPGDs fabricated with radioclean materials and discuss the approach to assessing their sensitivity to these faint signals. Applications are reviewed, in particular their use as a safeguard against illegitimate operation of nuclear reactors. A first industrial mass production of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) is succinctly described.Comment: Presented at the 2002 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, Norfolk VA, November 10-16. Submitted to IEEE Tran. Nucl. Sci. Five pages, eight figure

    Measurement of the Neutron Lifetime by Counting Trapped Protons in a Cold Neutron Beam

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    A measurement of the neutron lifetime τn\tau_{n} performed by the absolute counting of in-beam neutrons and their decay protons has been completed. Protons confined in a quasi-Penning trap were accelerated onto a silicon detector held at a high potential and counted with nearly unit efficiency. The neutrons were counted by a device with an efficiency inversely proportional to neutron velocity, which cancels the dwell time of the neutron beam in the trap. The result is τn=(886.6±1.2[stat]±3.2[sys])\tau_{n} = (886.6\pm1.2{\rm [stat]}\pm3.2{\rm [sys]}) s, which is the most precise measurement of the lifetime using an in-beam method. The systematic uncertainty is dominated by neutron counting, in particular the mass of the deposit and the 6^{6}Li({\it{n,t}}) cross section. The measurement technique and apparatus, data analysis, and investigation of systematic uncertainties are discussed in detail.Comment: 71 pages, 20 figures, 9 tables; submitted to PR

    Charm production in nonresonant e(+)e(-) annihilations at √s =10.55 GeV

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    This is the publisher's version also available electronically from http://journals.aps.org/prd/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevD.37.1719We report results on the differential and total cross sections for inclusive production of the charmed particles D*+, D*(0), D(0), D(+), D(s), and Λc in e(+)e(-) annihilations at √s=10.55 GeV. Widely used quark fragmentation models are discussed and compared with the measured charmed-particle momentum distributions. This comparison, as well as that with measurements at other center-of-mass energies, shows the need to take QCD corrections into account and their importance for a correct interpretation of the model parameters. The observed rate of D(0) and D(+) production is compared to the expected total charm production cross section. We measure the probability of a charmed meson being produced as a vector meson and the D*(+) decay branching fraction into D(0)π+

    Updated Measurement of the Strong Phase in D0 --> K+pi- Decay Using Quantum Correlations in e+e- --> D0 D0bar at CLEO

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    We analyze a sample of 3 million quantum-correlated D0 D0bar pairs from 818 pb^-1 of e+e- collision data collected with the CLEO-c detector at E_cm = 3.77 GeV, to give an updated measurement of \cos\delta and a first determination of \sin\delta, where \delta is the relative strong phase between doubly Cabibbo-suppressed D0 --> K+pi- and Cabibbo-favored D0bar --> K+pi- decay amplitudes. With no inputs from other experiments, we find \cos\delta = 0.81 +0.22+0.07 -0.18-0.05, \sin\delta = -0.01 +- 0.41 +- 0.04, and |\delta| = 10 +28+13 -53-0 degrees. By including external measurements of mixing parameters, we find alternative values of \cos\delta = 1.15 +0.19+0.00 -0.17-0.08, \sin\delta = 0.56 +0.32+0.21 -0.31-0.20, and \delta = (18 +11-17) degrees. Our results can be used to improve the world average uncertainty on the mixing parameter y by approximately 10%.Comment: Minor revisions, version accepted by PR

    Studies of the decays D^0 \rightarrow K_S^0K^-\pi^+ and D^0 \rightarrow K_S^0K^+\pi^-

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    The first measurements of the coherence factor R_{K_S^0K\pi} and the average strong--phase difference \delta^{K_S^0K\pi} in D^0 \to K_S^0 K^\mp\pi^\pm decays are reported. These parameters can be used to improve the determination of the unitary triangle angle \gamma\ in B^- \rightarrow D~K\widetilde{D}K^- decays, where D~\widetilde{D} is either a D^0 or a D^0-bar meson decaying to the same final state, and also in studies of charm mixing. The measurements of the coherence factor and strong-phase difference are made using quantum-correlated, fully-reconstructed D^0D^0-bar pairs produced in e^+e^- collisions at the \psi(3770) resonance. The measured values are R_{K_S^0K\pi} = 0.70 \pm 0.08 and \delta^{K_S^0K\pi} = (0.1 \pm 15.7)^\circ for an unrestricted kinematic region and R_{K*K} = 0.94 \pm 0.12 and \delta^{K*K} = (-16.6 \pm 18.4)^\circ for a region where the combined K_S^0 \pi^\pm invariant mass is within 100 MeV/c^2 of the K^{*}(892)^\pm mass. These results indicate a significant level of coherence in the decay. In addition, isobar models are presented for the two decays, which show the dominance of the K^*(892)^\pm resonance. The branching ratio {B}(D^0 \rightarrow K_S^0K^+\pi^-)/{B}(D^0 \rightarrow K_S^0K^-\pi^+) is determined to be 0.592 \pm 0.044 (stat.) \pm 0.018 (syst.), which is more precise than previous measurements.Comment: 38 pages. Version 3 updated to include the erratum information. Errors corrected in Eqs (25), (26), 28). Fit results updated accordingly, and external inputs updated to latest best known values. Typo corrected in Eq(3)- no other consequence

    Determination of the D0 -> K+pi- Relative Strong Phase Using Quantum-Correlated Measurements in e+e- -> D0 D0bar at CLEO

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    We exploit the quantum coherence between pair-produced D0 and D0bar in psi(3770) decays to study charm mixing, which is characterized by the parameters x and y, and to make a first determination of the relative strong phase \delta between doubly Cabibbo-suppressed D0 -> K+pi- and Cabibbo-favored D0bar -> K+pi-. We analyze a sample of 1.0 million D0D0bar pairs from 281 pb^-1 of e+e- collision data collected with the CLEO-c detector at E_cm = 3.77 GeV. By combining CLEO-c measurements with branching fraction input and time-integrated measurements of R_M = (x^2+y^2)/2 and R_{WS} = Gamma(D0 -> K+pi-)/Gamma(D0bar -> K+pi-) from other experiments, we find \cos\delta = 1.03 +0.31-0.17 +- 0.06, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. In addition, by further including external measurements of charm mixing parameters, we obtain an alternate measurement of \cos\delta = 1.10 +- 0.35 +- 0.07, as well as x\sin\delta = (4.4 +2.7-1.8 +- 2.9) x 10^-3 and \delta = 22 +11-12 +9-11 degrees.Comment: 37 pages, also available through http://www.lns.cornell.edu/public/CLNS/2007/. Incorporated referee's comment

    Observation of Upsilon(2S) -> eta Upsilon(1S) and search for related transitions

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    We report the first observation of the transition Upsilon(2S) > eta Upsilon(1S), with branching fraction B=(2.1+0.7-0.6(stat.)+-0.3(syst.)) x 10^{-4} and statistical significance 5.3 sigma. Data were acquired with the CLEO detector at the CESR e+ e- symmetric collider. This is the first process observed involving a b-quark spin flip. Upper limits at 90% confidence level for related processes, in units of 10^{-4}, are B[Upsilon(2S) -> pi0 Upsilon(1S)] eta Upsilon(1S)] pi0 Upsilon(1S)] pi0 Upsilon(2S)] < 5.1.Comment: 9 pages, 2 figures, available through http://www.lns.cornell.edu/public/CLNS/, submitted to PRL. Revised systematic errors. Slightly shortened to conform to PRL line coun

    New Measurements of Upsilon(1S) Decays to Charmonium Final States

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    Using substantially larger data samples collected by the CLEO III detector, we report on new measurements of the decays of Upsilon(1S) to charmonium final states, including J/Psi, psi(2S), and chi_cJ. The latter two are first observations of these decays. We measure the branching fractions as follows: B(Y(1S)--> J/Psi+X)=(6.4+-0.4+-0.6)x10^-4, B(Y(1S)--> psi(2S)+X)/B(Y(1S)--> J/Psi+X)=0.41+-0.11+-0.08, B(Y(1S)--> chi_c1+X)/B(Y(1S)--> J/Psi+X)=0.35+-0.08+-0.06, B(Y(1S)--> chi_c2+X)/B(Y(1S)--> J/Psi+X)=0.52+-0.12+-0.09, and B(Y(1S)--> chi_c0+X)/B(Y(1S)--> J/Psi+X)<7.4% at 90% confidence level. We also report on the momentum and angular spectra of J/Psi's in Upsilon(1S) decay. The results are compared to predictions of the color octet and color singlet models.Comment: 27 pages postscript,also available through http://w4.lns.cornell.edu/public/CLNS/, submitted to PR

    Measurement of the eta-Meson Mass using psi(2S) --> eta J/psi

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    We measure the mass of the eta meson using psi(2S) --> eta J/psi events acquired with the CLEO-c detector operating at the CESR e+e- collider. Using the four decay modes eta --> gamma gamma, 3pi0, pi+pi-pi0, and pi+pi-gamma, we find M(eta)=547.785 +- 0.017 +- 0.057 MeV, in which the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. This result has an uncertainty comparable to the two most precise previous measurements and is consistent with that of NA48, but is inconsistent at the level of 6.5sigma with the much smaller mass obtained by GEM.Comment: 10 pages postscript,also available through http://www.lns.cornell.edu/public/CLNS/2007/, Submitted to PR
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