15,366 research outputs found

### Relating quarks and leptons without grand-unification

In combination with supersymmetry, flavor symmetry may relate quarks with
leptons, even in the absence of a grand-unification group. We propose an
SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) model where both supersymmetry and the assumed A4 flavor
symmetries are softly broken, reproducing well the observed fermion mass
hierarchies and predicting: (i) a relation between down-type quarks and charged
lepton masses, and (ii) a correlation between the Cabibbo angle in the quark
sector, and the reactor angle characterizing CP violation in neutrino
oscillations.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, version published in PR

### Cluster Property and Robustness of Ground States of Interacting Many Bosons

We study spatial correlation functions of local operators of interacting many
bosons confined in a box of a large, but volume V, for various `ground states'
whose energy densities are almost degenerate. The ground states include the
coherent state of interacting bosons (CSIB), the number state of interacting
bosons (NSIB), and the number-phase squeezed state of interacting bosons, which
interpolates between the CSIB and NSIB. It was shown previously that only the
CSIB is robust (i.e., does not decohere for a macroscopically long time)
against the leakage of bosons into an environment. We show that for the CSIB
the spatial correlation of any local operators A(r) and B(r') (which are
localized around r and r', respectively) vanishes as |r - r' | \sim V^{1/3} \to
\infty, i.e., the CSIB has the `cluster property.' In contrast, the other
ground states do not possess the cluster property. Therefore, we have
successfully shown that the robust state has the cluster property. This ensures
the consistency of the field theory of bosons with macroscopic theories.Comment: We have replaced the manuscript in order to update the reference list
and to fix typos. (5 pages, no figures) In the final manuscript, a few
sentences have added for more detailed explanation. Journal PDF at
http://jpsj.jps.or.jp/journal/JPSJ-71-1.htm

### Quantum Zeno Effect for Exponentially Decaying Systems

The quantum Zeno effect -- suppression of decay by frequent measurements --
was believed to occur only when the response of the detector is so quick that
the initial tiny deviation from the exponential decay law is detectable.
However, we show that it can occur even for exactly exponentially decaying
systems, for which this condition is never satisfied, by considering a
realistic case where the detector has a finite energy band of detection. The
conventional theories correspond to the limit of an infinite bandwidth. This
implies that the Zeno effect occurs more widely than expected so far.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure

### Magnetic Flux Loss and Flux Transport in a Decaying Active Region

We estimate the temporal change of magnetic flux perpendicular to the solar
surface in a decaying active region by using a time series of the spatial
distribution of vector magnetic fields in the photosphere. The vector magnetic
fields are derived from full spectropolarimetric measurements with the Solar
Optical Telescope aboard Hinode. We compare a magnetic flux loss rate to a flux
transport rate in a decaying sunspot and its surrounding moat region. The
amount of magnetic flux that decreases in the sunspot and moat region is very
similar to magnetic flux transported to the outer boundary of the moat region.
The flux loss rates [$(dF/dt)_{loss}$] of magnetic elements with positive and
negative polarities are balanced each other around the outer boundary of the
moat region. These results suggest that most of the magnetic flux in the
sunspot is transported to the outer boundary of the moat region as moving
magnetic features, and then removed from the photosphere by flux cancellation
around the outer boundary of the moat region.Comment: 16 pages, 7 figures, Accepted for publication in Ap

### Jets or high velocity flows revealed in high-cadence spectrometer and imager co-observations?

We report on active region EUV dynamic events observed simultaneously at
high-cadence with SUMER/SoHO and TRACE. Although the features appear in the
TRACE Fe ix/x 171A images as jets seen in projection on the solar disk, the
SUMER spectral line profiles suggest that the plasma has been driven along a
curved large scale magnetic structure, a pre-existing loop. The SUMER
observations were carried out in spectral lines covering a large temperature
range from 10^4 K to 10^6 K. The spectral analysis revealed that a sudden
heating from an energy deposition is followed by a high velocity plasma flow.
The Doppler velocities were found to be in the range from 90 to 160 km/s. The
heating process has a duration which is below the SUMER exposure time of 25 s
while the lifetime of the events is from 5 to 15 min. The additional check on
soft X-ray Yohkoh images shows that the features most probably reach 3 MK
(X-ray) temperatures. The spectroscopic analysis showed no existence of cold
material during the events

### Generalized Phase Rules

For a multi-component system, general formulas are derived for the dimension
of a coexisting region in the phase diagram in various state spaces.Comment: In the revised manuscript, physical meanings of D's are explained by
adding three figures. 10 pages, 3 figure

### On the Response Function Technique for Calculating the Random-Phase Approximation Correlation Energy

We develop a scheme to exactly evaluate the correlation energy in the
random-phase approximation, based on linear response theory. It is demonstrated
that our formula is completely equivalent to a contour integral representation
recently proposed by Donau et al. being numerically more efficient for
realistic calculations. Numerical examples are presented for pairing
correlations in rapidly rotating nuclei.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

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