15,366 research outputs found

    Relating quarks and leptons without grand-unification

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    In combination with supersymmetry, flavor symmetry may relate quarks with leptons, even in the absence of a grand-unification group. We propose an SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) model where both supersymmetry and the assumed A4 flavor symmetries are softly broken, reproducing well the observed fermion mass hierarchies and predicting: (i) a relation between down-type quarks and charged lepton masses, and (ii) a correlation between the Cabibbo angle in the quark sector, and the reactor angle characterizing CP violation in neutrino oscillations.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, version published in PR

    Cluster Property and Robustness of Ground States of Interacting Many Bosons

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    We study spatial correlation functions of local operators of interacting many bosons confined in a box of a large, but volume V, for various `ground states' whose energy densities are almost degenerate. The ground states include the coherent state of interacting bosons (CSIB), the number state of interacting bosons (NSIB), and the number-phase squeezed state of interacting bosons, which interpolates between the CSIB and NSIB. It was shown previously that only the CSIB is robust (i.e., does not decohere for a macroscopically long time) against the leakage of bosons into an environment. We show that for the CSIB the spatial correlation of any local operators A(r) and B(r') (which are localized around r and r', respectively) vanishes as |r - r' | \sim V^{1/3} \to \infty, i.e., the CSIB has the `cluster property.' In contrast, the other ground states do not possess the cluster property. Therefore, we have successfully shown that the robust state has the cluster property. This ensures the consistency of the field theory of bosons with macroscopic theories.Comment: We have replaced the manuscript in order to update the reference list and to fix typos. (5 pages, no figures) In the final manuscript, a few sentences have added for more detailed explanation. Journal PDF at http://jpsj.jps.or.jp/journal/JPSJ-71-1.htm

    Quantum Zeno Effect for Exponentially Decaying Systems

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    The quantum Zeno effect -- suppression of decay by frequent measurements -- was believed to occur only when the response of the detector is so quick that the initial tiny deviation from the exponential decay law is detectable. However, we show that it can occur even for exactly exponentially decaying systems, for which this condition is never satisfied, by considering a realistic case where the detector has a finite energy band of detection. The conventional theories correspond to the limit of an infinite bandwidth. This implies that the Zeno effect occurs more widely than expected so far.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure

    Magnetic Flux Loss and Flux Transport in a Decaying Active Region

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    We estimate the temporal change of magnetic flux perpendicular to the solar surface in a decaying active region by using a time series of the spatial distribution of vector magnetic fields in the photosphere. The vector magnetic fields are derived from full spectropolarimetric measurements with the Solar Optical Telescope aboard Hinode. We compare a magnetic flux loss rate to a flux transport rate in a decaying sunspot and its surrounding moat region. The amount of magnetic flux that decreases in the sunspot and moat region is very similar to magnetic flux transported to the outer boundary of the moat region. The flux loss rates [(dF/dt)loss(dF/dt)_{loss}] of magnetic elements with positive and negative polarities are balanced each other around the outer boundary of the moat region. These results suggest that most of the magnetic flux in the sunspot is transported to the outer boundary of the moat region as moving magnetic features, and then removed from the photosphere by flux cancellation around the outer boundary of the moat region.Comment: 16 pages, 7 figures, Accepted for publication in Ap

    Jets or high velocity flows revealed in high-cadence spectrometer and imager co-observations?

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    We report on active region EUV dynamic events observed simultaneously at high-cadence with SUMER/SoHO and TRACE. Although the features appear in the TRACE Fe ix/x 171A images as jets seen in projection on the solar disk, the SUMER spectral line profiles suggest that the plasma has been driven along a curved large scale magnetic structure, a pre-existing loop. The SUMER observations were carried out in spectral lines covering a large temperature range from 10^4 K to 10^6 K. The spectral analysis revealed that a sudden heating from an energy deposition is followed by a high velocity plasma flow. The Doppler velocities were found to be in the range from 90 to 160 km/s. The heating process has a duration which is below the SUMER exposure time of 25 s while the lifetime of the events is from 5 to 15 min. The additional check on soft X-ray Yohkoh images shows that the features most probably reach 3 MK (X-ray) temperatures. The spectroscopic analysis showed no existence of cold material during the events

    Generalized Phase Rules

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    For a multi-component system, general formulas are derived for the dimension of a coexisting region in the phase diagram in various state spaces.Comment: In the revised manuscript, physical meanings of D's are explained by adding three figures. 10 pages, 3 figure

    On the Response Function Technique for Calculating the Random-Phase Approximation Correlation Energy

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    We develop a scheme to exactly evaluate the correlation energy in the random-phase approximation, based on linear response theory. It is demonstrated that our formula is completely equivalent to a contour integral representation recently proposed by Donau et al. being numerically more efficient for realistic calculations. Numerical examples are presented for pairing correlations in rapidly rotating nuclei.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure
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